Lecture 1 Understanding Culture

Lecture 1 Test

1、Culture can be divided into "________", such as literary and artistic works, and "popular culture" :
    A、high culture
    B、artifacts and creations
    D、basic assumptions

2、________ has been defined as "cultural variants displayed by certain segments of the population… they are within the larger world of our national culture" (Komarovsky & Sargent, 1949, p.143).
    A、mainstream / dominant culture
    C、physical culture
    D、popular culture

3、What are the characteristics of culture?
    A、Culture is learned.
    B、Culture is shared.
    C、Culture is transmissive.
    D、Culture affects human behavior.

4、In intercultural studies, we need to be aware that ________:
    A、culture may change.
    B、Eastern and Western cultures are not independent.
    C、Eastern and Western cultures are interdependent and permeable to each other.
    D、culture is multi-layered and complicated.

5、Culture is what we perceive as distinguishing us from nature, from animals, from each other as members of a social group.

6、Race is generally defined based on physical characteristics which a person was born with, such as skin color, facial features and hair type.

7、In intercultural communication, students need to remove the knowledge of our own culture to acquire the knowledge of other cultures.

8、Students in cultural communication should consciously put aside preconceptions, avoid over-generalization and continuously seek deepened understandings of cultural phenomena.

Lecture 2 Comparing Origins of Civilizations

Lecture 2 Test

1、Civilizations could come into being in a short time.

2、Agriculture played an essential role in the development of civilizations.

3、The Yellow River is called the "cradle of Chinese civilization".

4、The varied topography along the Yellow River is favorable for the development of agriculture.

5、Life in Chinese river civilization was stable and predictable.

6、As most Greek city-states were near the Mediterranean Sea, ancient Greeks became a sea-going people.

7、Unlike the nomads, the Chinese became a sedentary people with a highly developed agriculture.

8、The Minoan civilization deeply influenced the west Asian and Egyptian civilizations.

9、The Chinese nature-based, farm-based economy strengthened the tie among family members.

10、The rugged terrain forced the ancient Greeks to turn out to the sea for trade and food production.

Lecture 3 Comparing Religious Beliefs

Lecture 3 Test

1、Daoism and Buddhism are the two traditional religions that have influenced Chinese culture for thousands of years.

2、Lao Zi developed the philosophy of Daoism, but was not related to the religion of Daoism.

3、Dialectism in Daoism philosophy means that the positive and negative co-exist in all things and they are interchangeable.

4、Moderation, humility and longevity were pursued by the philosophy of Daoism.

5、Buddhism originated in ancient India, and came to China in late Han Dynasty.

6、Northern Buddhism that has been mainly practiced in the central region of China was influenced by Confucianism.

7、One of the similarities between Buddhism and Daoism is that they both have a single all-powerful God.

8、Christianity, originated in the first century AD, developed into three branches, i.e. the Roman Catholic, the Eastern Orthodox and the Protestant.

9、Modern Western art and music were basically paintings and hymns to complement God.

10、That Napoleon himself crowned himself and his Queen in the painting of "La Sacre de Napoleon" indicates his defiance to the Roman Catholic church.

Lecture 4 Comparing Social Values

Lecture 4 Test

1、Values have been defined as the collective understandings of what is good, correct, desirable and proper in a given culture.

2、Ho, Fu and Ng (2004) clarify two dimensions of "face": lian focuses on the characters of a morally good person, while mianzi focuses on the reputation and social status achieved through one's efforts.

3、Hofstede (1980) explains cultural value differences in terms of the four dimensions, namely individuality/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity/femininity.

4、Hofstede's power-distance dimension expresses the degree to which "the less powerful members of a society accept or expect that power is distributed unequally".

5、Collectivism refers to a society characterized by weak ties between individuals, in which the individuals are expected to be responsible for themselves or close relatives only.

6、Stereotypes are over-simplified, over-generalized labels imposed on social groups and social phenomena which are diverse and complex in nature.

7、Hofstede's value dimensions are widely cited and free from problems.

8、Hofstede' value dimensions tend to construct positive stereotypes of the Western values in contrast to the negative stereotypes of non-Western values.

Lecture 5 Languages and Thinking Patterns

Lecture 5 Test

1、Language is basically a system of communication just like the system of traffic symbols.

2、Language is a hierarchical system, consisting of different levels such as sound, word, sentence and text.

3、Language family refers to a group of languages, which are located geographically close.

4、In Chinese, more words are formed by combining two characters while in English more words are constructed by adding prefix or suffix.

5、Chinese is a hypotactic language because it has no strict requirement on the forms of sentences.

6、The majority of Chinese characters are pictographs, bearing close resemblance to the objects or things they represented.

7、The patterns or modes of thinking are stable habitual mental tendencies formed over a long time for a group of people.

8、The Western people tend to fall into inductive reasoning, i.e., moving from specific facts, observations, or experiences to a general conclusion.

9、The linear mode of thinking holds that the world is dynamic and changeable.

10、That many Chinese characters are ideograms can implicitly direct its speakers' attention to images.

Lecture 6 Comparing Educational Practices

Lecture 6 Test

1、Cortazzi and Jin (1996) argued that one feature of the Chinese "culture of learning" is the hierarchical but harmonious relationship between teacher and students. The statement is an absolutely correct reflection of Chinese academic culture.

2、Chinese students learn for pragmatic reasons only.

3、All Chinese teachers are authoritative figures who teach classes in a didactic way.

4、Chinese students traditionally outperform their peers in Western countries particularly in maths and science, because Chinese students are all hardworking and intelligent.

5、Neither learning styles nor learning strategies are unchangeable, or pre-determined by fixed interpretations of a given academic culture.

6、Ethnocentrism is a cultural attitude, which holds that one's own culture is better than others'.

7、Eurocentrism portrays "the East" with negative and exotic features.

8、The trends of globalization and the world economy have led to similar skills that different educational systems expect students, or future workers in the knowledge economy, to develop.

Chapter 7 Comparing Cultures through Visual Arts

Lecture 7 Test

1、According to Oscar Wilde, art is the most ________ mode of ________ that the world has known.
    A、tender, individualism
    B、intense, individualism
    C、intense, humanism

2、According to the first video clip, what is the purpose of art?
    A、To propaganda for a political cause
    B、To imitate the simple, familiar objects in life
    C、To support the truths set down by religions

3、Compared with the sculptures made in Renaissance, those made during the Baroque period were featured with ________.
    B、calm nobility

4、In the Hellenistic Period, artistic creation was governed by the idea of ________.
    A、praising the Christian church
    B、imitating the physical world
    C、singing praises of the emperor

5、In ancient China, the bronze-casting skill reached its peak in ________ Dynasty.

6、Parallel to the development of Academic paintings was the ________ painting.

7、The trees painted by Ni Zan were generally ________.
    A、accurate in size and proportion
    B、express subjective experiences
    C、mirror the real trees in life

8、Xie He's Six Principles included the following except ________.
    A、proper representation of objects
    B、well-planned space
    C、linear perspective

Lecture 8 Comparing Cultures through Poetry

Lecture 8 Test

1、According to Britannica, ________ is literature that evokes a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience.

2、Aristotle regarded the origin of poetry from human nature of ________ and their sense of harmony and rhythm.

3、In Chinese language, the four tones generally fall into two groups, ________ tones and ________ tones.
    A、falling, rising
    B、level, oblique
    C、stressed, unstressed

4、To ________, learning poetry not only can enable people to express their ideas, to educate themselves, but also to maintain social conventions.

5、A sonnet is a ________, 14-line poem, written in ________ and with a ________ rhyme scheme.
    A、two-stanza, iambic pentameter, flexible
    B、two-stanza, stressed pentameter, strict
    C、one-stanza, iambic pentameter, strict

6、The English sonnet style was named after Shakespeare because ________.
    A、he gave sonnet new contemporary English blood
    B、he was the first English poet to write sonnets
    C、he wrote sonnet in all his plays and novels

7、Both ________ and ________ were originated from folk songs, and both satisfied people's needs to express their emotions in a certain cultural background.
    A、sonnet, prose
    B、poetry, prose
    C、sonnet, Ci

8、From the language point of view, the structure of Sonnet might be connected to the characteristic of the ________ language.

Final Exam

Final Exam

1、Hofstede's ________ dimension is about the degrees to which individuals are integrated into groups.
    B、power-distance dimension
    C、Uncertainty avoidance

2、Hofstede's ________ dimension is about the degrees to which the members of a society respond to uncertainty and ambiguity.
    B、power-distance dimension
    C、Uncertainty avoidance

3、Which of the following may NOT be the reason for people to create art?
    A、To propaganda for a political cause.
    B、To support the truths set down by religions.
    C、To examine the truth about human society .

4、The most famous prehistoric cave paintings in Europe are found in ________.
    A、Lascaux, France and Altamira, Spain
    B、Paris, France and Madrid, Spain
    C、Lascaux, Spain and Madrid, Italy

5、The antecedents of most European arts lie in the artistic production of ________.
    A、ancient Italy and France
    B、ancient Greece and Rome
    C、ancient Italy and Rome

6、Renaissance originated from ________ since the 15th century and soon spread over the whole Europe.

7、One of the most typical achievements of ________ Dynasty visual arts is sculpture, especially those of burial stone sculptures.

8、Zhou Fang's Ladies with Head-pinned Flowers depicted ________.
    A、the leisurely and carefree life of court ladies
    B、the annual symbolic imperial rite of silk production
    C、the imperial exams for selecting officials

9、Representing the reality was emphasized since ________ demanded in ________ art, and revived in ________.
    A、Renaissance, Christian, Baroque period
    B、Aristotle, Christian, Baroque period
    C、Aristotle, Christian, Renaissance

10、European modernistic painters, such as ________ in France and ________ in the Netherlands, started to adopt elements from Asian cultures in their artistic creation.
    A、Monet, Van Gogh
    B、Picasso, Van Gogh
    C、Leonardo Da Vinci, Monet

11、________ in poetry is a rhythm of accented and unaccented syllables arranged into feet.

12、Unlike English words, which are composed of a variable number of ________, Chinese characters are all ________.
    A、syllables, unstressed
    B、tones, monosyllabic
    C、syllables, monosyllabic

13、Poetry is an art that harmonizes both ________ of word pronunciation and ________of word meanings.
    A、musicality, images
    B、musicality, repetition
    C、imitating, images

14、When Samuel Taylor Coleridge said "Prose equals words in their best order; poetry equals best words in their best order", he was emphasizing that ________ was crucially important in writing poetry.
    A、symbolic language
    B、choice of words
    C、philosophical ideas

15、In chapter eight, we compared a sonnet "Renouncement" and a Chinese Ci "Dielianhua", while the ________ starts with surprising remarks of a person, the ________ starts with sentimental description of the environment.
    A、latter, former
    B、former, latter

16、Just like Xi He who placed vitality as the highest principle of painting, the famous poem critic Wang Guowei believed that ________ was most important in writing Chinese Ci.
    A、spiritual mental state
    B、symbolic feature
    C、logic reasoning

17、Assumptions are debatable, while values are non-debatable and usually taken for granted.

18、Assumptions are dangerous as they turn human behaviors into unconscious and uncritical processes.

19、Films, pop music and television dramas are all forms of high culture.

20、A person can be influenced at the same time by a national culture, a regional culture, an ethnic culture, a gender culture and a generation culture.

21、Culture is uniformly distributed among members of a cultural group.

22、Cultures are equal, and no culture holds a superior position to other cultures.

23、There were clear-cut evidences of the sequence of picture language and oral language.

24、Early civilizations tended to develop near water resources.

25、Western civilization developed independently without interacting with oriental civilizations.

26、People in the Chinese river civilization tended to expand aggressively.

27、Due to the unfavorable farming condition, Ancient Greeks had to build contacts with a wider world in order to survive.

28、The Old Stone Age people already knew how to keep and raise livestock for food.

29、The ancient Greeks developed an innovative spirit spontaneously.

30、Travelling overseas and mountains forced the ancient Greeks to emphasize theological and legal systems and social contracts.

31、The Chinese nature-based, farm-based economy was the economic foundation of the feudal system.

32、The rugged terrain of Greece contributed greatly to the cultural diffusion between the city-states.

33、Dialectism can be found in the classic Chinese allusion that "Misfortune may prove a blessing in disguise".

34、Religion refers to the relationship that Human beings hold between themselves and the superpower that they believe in.

35、"To refrain from taking life" is one of the moral codes advocated in Daoism.

36、In the Chinese classic novel "Journey to the West" (西游记),elements from Daoism and Buddism are integrated.

37、In traditional Western cities, churches and cathedrals are normally located in mountains or hills.

38、One of the differences between Daoism and Christianity lies in the belief of multi-gods or only one God.

39、Stereotyping is a cognitive process which categorizes social groups, social behaviors and social phenomena into fixed groups.

40、Hofstede's value dimensions depict values as homogeneous, overlooking individual differences with a society.

41、Hofstede's value dimensions depict values as timeless, overlooking possible changes of social values over time.

42、Value stereotypes are fixed, exaggerated beliefs attributed to the members of a social group.

43、Language is a system like that of traffic lights and signs except that it is originally vocal.

44、Arbitrariness means that a linguistic symbol or sign such as a word has no direct relationship with the object it stands for.

45、That English was influenced by French indicates that population migration is one of the causes for language propagation.

46、Chinese language has many compounds formed by adding a word featuring the porperty to a word of family of the entity such as 白酒、红酒、黄酒。

47、English is mainly a paratactic language because it has strict requirement on form.

48、All alphabets of Indo-European languages were simplified by Phoenicians on the basis of Egyptian pictographs in 4000BC.

49、That we can study the modes of thinking in our mind is because the use of words can stand as outward marks of our internal ideas.

50、Chinese people tend to fall into deductive reasoning, i.e., moving from specific facts, observations, or experiences to a general conclusion.

51、The Chinese teacher-student relationship is hierarchical because China is a high-power-distance country.

52、The teacher-student relationship in the West involves no emotional attachment.

53、Chinese students learn by memorization; therefore, they are not effective learners.

54、Cooperative learning is not stressed in Western classrooms because Western culture is characterized by individualism.

55、Western students prefer interactive teaching approaches, while Chinese students are silent in classrooms.

56、All learners in one culture have the same learning style and use the same learning strategy.

57、Confucian teachings determine Chinese educational practices.

58、The submissive and obedient images of the Chinese students are merely cultural stereotypes.

59、Within a society, cultural values functions to form a collective identity, uniting and binding social members together.