Chapter 1 翻译简介 Brief Introduction to Translation

Chapter 1 Homework

1、What is your understanding of translation?

Chapter 2 词义的差异 Lexical Differences

Test_Chapters 1&2

1、The dinner cost us five dollars a head. Which is the most appropriate translation for the word “head” in the sentence?
    A、首脑
    B、每人
    C、头
    D、头脑

2、Which of the following phenomenon do the Chinese expressions“吃闲饭”,“吃香”belong to?
    A、Lexical gap
    B、Lexical correspondence
    C、Collocation
    D、Polysemy

3、The sentence “Seeing is believing.” is put into Chinese as百闻不如一见。The translation technique is:
    A、Literal translation
    B、Liberal translation
    C、Adaptation
    D、Transliteration

4、“Until all is over, ambition never dies.” is translated into 不到黄河心不死。The translation technique is:
    A、Transliteration
    B、Adaptation
    C、Literal translation
    D、Liberal translation

5、The record has been considered soft ever since it was set last May. Which is the most appropriate translation for the word “soft” when it used together with record in the sentence?
    A、委婉的
    B、轻柔的
    C、容易被打破的
    D、易感动的

Chapter 2 Homework

1、“母亲望子成龙” is translated into “The mother longs to see her son become a dragon.” Do you think this is an appropriate translation? Make an analysis of this translation based on the different cultural concepts between English and Chinese.

Chapter 3 词语的变通 Lexical Accommodation

Test_Chapter 3

1、Military competition must be prohibited. Which is the most appropriate translation?
    A、禁止军备竞赛。
    B、军备竞赛必须被禁止。
    C、军备竞赛必须禁止。
    D、军备竞赛一定禁止。

2、他们绝对不能容忍任何恐怖行为.Which is the most appropriate translation?
    A、They have zero tolerance for terror.
    B、They will never be tolerant to any terror.
    C、They never tolerate terror any more.
    D、They will absolutely not tolerate any terror.

3、He was beyond any pretension. Which is the most appropriate translation?
    A、他太做作。
    B、他越过了任何的伪装。
    C、他毫无娇柔之心,虚荣之意。
    D、他超越了任何的假装。

4、来宾出示入场券。Which of the following are better translated versions?
    A、Visitors are requested to show their tickets.
    B、Visitors show the entrance tickets.
    C、Tickets are requested for the entrance.
    D、Tickets are requested to show at the entrance.

5、Lexical Accommodations include:
    A、addition and omission
    B、conversion
    C、active and passive conversion
    D、affirmation and negation

Chapter 3 Homework

1、“Commission depends on the quantity of goods ordered.” Please translate this sentence into Chinese, and figure out whether addition or omission is used in translation.

Chapter 4 句法的差异 Syntactic Differences

Test_Chapter 4

1、What is the key in translation from Chinese into English?
    A、The modifiers
    B、The predicate
    C、The object
    D、The subject

2、Which of the following sentence translated from Chinese to English doesn’t illustrate the principle of hypotaxis and parataxis?
    A、聪明一世,糊涂一时。 Smart as a rule, but this time a fool.
    B、种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。 As you sow, so will you reap.
    C、吃一堑,长一智。 A fall into the pit, a gain in your wit.
    D、衣不如新,人不如故。 Everything is good when new, but friends when old.

3、According to the openness and closeness of sentence structure, when you are translating Chinese into English, you should divide the long sentences into shorter ones.

4、“在过去一年里,中国贯彻扩大内需的方针,经济得到稳步发展。”can be translated into “Last year, China implemented the policy of enlarging domestic demands, which led to steady economic development”.

5、Since English is a subject-prominent language, the sentence “等剩下的问题都解决之后就应立即开始安装” should be translated into ‘The installation should be commenced as soon as all the remaining problems have been cleared up’.

Chapter 4 Homework

1、How do you understand hypotaxis and parataxis?

Chapter 5 句法的变通 Syntactic Accommodation

Test_Chapter 5

1、这篇文章,由于论据不足,不能在本刊发表。In this sentence the adverbial clause can be translated into_____.
    A、attributive
    B、predicate
    C、object
    D、complement

2、“①And I take heart from the fact ②that the enemy, ③which boasts that it can occupy the strategic points in a couple of hours, ④has not yet been able to take even the outlying regions, ⑤because of the stiff resistance that gets in the way.” Which is the correct order of translation?
    A、①②③④⑤
    B、②①④⑤③
    C、①④⑤③②
    D、⑤③②④①

3、“When I would have willingly displayed my knowledge, they sought to explore my ignorance.” In this sentence the conjunction “when” is used to introduce adverbial clause of :
    A、condition
    B、concession
    C、time
    D、cause

4、他决定修这门很难的课,结果使他整个夏天忙得不亦乐乎。 He decided to take this difficult course, which has made him extremely busy during the summer. From the above C-E translation we can see that Chinese adverbial is translated into attributive clause in English.

5、“When it is wet, the buses are crowded ”can be translated into “下雨天的公共汽车总是很拥挤”。

Chapter 5 Homework

1、How do you think a translator could deal with the translation of long and complex sentences?

Chapter 6 语篇差异与翻译 Discourse Differences

Test_Chapter 6

1、生存还是死亡,这是个问题。 To be or not to be,____________ is a question. Which of the following is the most appropriate pronoun for the blank?
    A、this
    B、that
    C、it
    D、he

2、你应该扔掉这辆旧自行车,买辆新的。 You ought to scrap the old bike and buy a new ___________. Which of the following is the most appropriate pronoun for the blank?
    A、bike
    B、it
    C、ones
    D、one

3、Which of the following is an adversative conjunction?
    A、moreover
    B、however
    C、therefore
    D、meanwhile

4、Which of the following is informative text?
    A、novel
    B、notice
    C、advertisement
    D、news

5、In translation practice, we should make a correct understanding of the source text, grasp the writer's intention and the logic and coherence of the text then transmit the coherence in the source text into the target text in order to produce a faithful and smooth translation.

Chapter 6 Homework

1、“A chemical change is one in which the structure of particles is changed and a new substance is formed.”Translate this sentence into Chinese and figure out how substitution is used in this translation process (for example, A替代B).

Chapter 7 英汉文化比较 Comparison between English and Chinese Cultures

Test_Chapter 7

1、But there had been too much publicity about my case. Which is the most appropriate translation for the word “publicity” in the sentence?
    A、满城风雨、人人皆知
    B、宣传,宣扬
    C、公开;广告
    D、注意

2、The thick carpet killed the sound of my footsteps. 我走在厚厚的地毯上,一点脚步声也没有。 The Chinese version chooses 我 as the subject, which exemplify the Chinese thinking mode of _____.
    A、ontological thinking
    B、objective thinking
    C、curvilinear thinking
    D、synthetic thinking

3、God helps those who help themselves. Which is the most appropriate translation for the word “God” in the sentence?
    A、天
    B、上帝
    C、神
    D、真主

4、The idea of a fish being able to generate electricity strong enough to light small bulbs, even to run electric motors, is almost unbelievable. “鱼能发电,其电量足以点亮小灯泡,甚至能开动马达,这种想法简直是令人难以置信的。” This is an exemplification of “synthetic thinking vs. analytic thinking”.

5、“It is just great to be recognized for what you love to do.” “干你喜欢干的事,又得到认可,那真叫棒”. This is an exemplification of “curvilinear thinking vs. linear thinking”.

Chapter 7 Homework

1、What is your understanding of the relationship among language, thinking mode and translation?

Final Exam

客观题考试试卷:《英汉比较与翻译》慕课 期末测试

1、Which of the following is NOT included in Xu Yuanchong’s principle of Three Beauties in translation?
    A、beauty in sense
    B、beauty in sound
    C、beauty in form
    D、beauty in sublimity

2、Which of the following is not included in the three categories of lexical correspondence?
    A、full equivalence
    B、partial equivalence
    C、lexical gap
    D、lexical equivalence

3、Some reporters who were not included in the session broke the story. Which is the most appropriate translation for the word “story” in the sentence?
    A、内情
    B、事件
    C、情形
    D、故事

4、In the late summer of that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across the river and the plain to the mountains. 那年夏天,我们住在乡村一幢房子里。那村隔着河和平原与群山相望。 In the process of this English-Chinese translation, which group of words exemplify the translation technique of Addition?
    A、house — 房子
    B、village — 乡村
    C、the river and the plain — 河和平原
    D、mountains — 群山

5、Even so, I still insist that for the individual himself nothing is more important than this personal, interior sense of right and wrong and his determination to follow that rather than to be guided by what everybody does or merely the criterion of “social usefulness”. In this sentence, “to be guided by what everybody does” is better to be translated into active voice as ______.
    A、随波逐流
    B、受他人行为引导
    C、受他人影响
    D、模仿他人

6、We believe the quality of this material will not fail in answering your purpose. Which of the following do you think is more appropriate?
    A、我们相信此货的质量一定不会达不到贵方的要求。
    B、我们相信此货的质量一定符合贵方的要求。
    C、我们不相信此货的质量一定不会达不到贵方的要求。
    D、我们不相信此货的质量一定符合贵方的要求。

7、The surprise is not in the existence of such accidents, but in their abundance. To translate this sentence into Chinese properly, it’s better to make conversion from abstraction to concretion. In this sense, which of the following is better for “abundance”?
    A、大量
    B、频繁发生
    C、丰盛
    D、充裕

8、English is subject-prominent, while Chinese is topic-prominent. And choosing and determining the subject is the key in C-E translation. In this sense, which of the following English versions is NOT suitable for the original Chinese sentence? 不到长城非好汉。
    A、He who has never been to the Great Wall is not a true man.
    B、One who fails to reach the Great Wall is not a hero.
    C、Not having been to the Great Wall makes no true man.
    D、He who has never made it to the Great Wall is not a hero.

9、On account of the difference between openness and closeness of sentence structure, which of the following Chinese versions do you think is better? Can you answer a question which I want to ask and which is puzzling me?
    A、我有一个问题弄不懂, 想请教你,你能回答吗?
    B、你能回答一个我弄不懂而又想问你的问题吗?
    C、我有一个弄不懂而又想问你的问题。你能回答吗?
    D、你能回答一个我想问你的又弄不懂的问题吗?

10、In the following translation, which conjunctions do you think should be added? 虚心使人进步,骄傲使人落后。 Modesty helps one to go forward, _____ conceit makes one lag behind.
    A、if
    B、when
    C、once
    D、whereas

11、Which technique is used in the following translation? “Do you think he was too serious?” “Yes, I think so.”
    A、demonstrative reference
    B、clausal substitution
    C、verbal substitution
    D、nominal substitution

12、Which kind of conjunction is used in the following translation? I kept out till approximately nine o’clock, and then I came back. 9点来钟以前,我一直在外面,后来才回来。
    A、Additive
    B、Adversative
    C、Causal
    D、Temporal

13、The hub of public life is the “Piazza San Marco” (St. Mark’s Square) where tourists and citizens sit on the terraces of the famous Florian and Quadri cafés to listen to the music, dream and see the mosaics of St. Mark’s glow under the rays of the setting sun. The Quadri is more popular but the Florian is the best-known café: founded in 1720, it has received Byron, Goethe, Musset and Wagner within its mirrored and allegory-painted walls. This original text is a brief for scenic spots, which belongs to tourist text. In this sense, which of the following translation is proper for the word “glow”?
    A、闪烁
    B、熠熠生辉
    C、色彩鲜艳
    D、发光

14、The scientist is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective. 科学家善于观察,准确、耐心、客观。 In the process of translation, the technique of conversion is used.

15、English features hypotaxis, which focuses on the language cohesion in form, while Chinese features parataxis, which focuses on the significance of the continuous coherence. In this sense, the Chinese sentence should be translated as follows: 当前,车辆横冲直撞,严重地威胁着城市生活,路上行人无不提心吊胆。 Nowadays, cars dash around like mad on the road, it imperils the city life, and pedestrians are in constant fear.

16、The thief, who was about to escape, was caught by the police. 小偷正要逃跑时,被警察抓住了。 This translation is a good example of syntactic accommodation.

17、When translating long and complex sentences, the following techniques could be used: keeping the sentence order, changing the sentence order, dividing sentences and integrated approach.

18、Advances in treatments available to younger patients are equally valuable to older patients although treatment of congestive heart failure in old patients poses problems of greater magnitude than in younger persons and requires special consideration owing to the multiple pathological ailments and changes in pharmacological responses with age. Which of the following Chinese versions do you think is better? 老年人心力衰竭的治疗比年轻心衰病人的治疗更加困难。由于年老,病人常有多种疾病并存,并且对药物的反应也有改变,所以治疗时应顾及老年人的特殊性。不过,在年轻病人中采用的新的治疗方法仍然适用于老年病人。 In this translation, the integrated method is used and it is native to the Chinese expression habit.

19、From the perspective of thinking mode, English tends to be more analytic while Chinese tends to be more synthetic. Therefore, the following translation should be like this: The idea of a fish being able to generate electricity strong enough to light small bulbs, even to run electric motors, is almost unbelievable. 鱼能发电,其电量足以点亮小灯泡,甚至能开动马达,这种想法简直是令人难以置信的。

20、必须调整高等院校的专业设置,改进教学方法。 Specialties in colleges and universities should be adjusted and teaching methods improved. From the above translation, we can see that Chinese tend to be ontological thinking, while English tends to be objective thinking.