Unit 1 Narrative Mode

Read the following passage and determine from which perspective the passage is narrated.

1、The birds were chirping and the sun was shining. Kevin and Juno were sitting on a park bench together. Neither of them was smiling. After a long period of silence, Kevin said, "This isn't going to work. I mean, you're a dog person and I'm a cat person." Juno nodded. A tear rolled down her face. Kevin went on, "If we got married and bought a house, what kind of pet would we get? Some kind of cat-dog? Somebody's going to be unhappy." Juno began sobbing and said, "Ok, let's just end it now. Have fun with your slobbery dogs." She jumped off the bench and ran into the woods. It’s third-person limited.

2、The dew on the grass made my running shoes damp. It didn't bother me. The sound of my feet hitting the street formed a rhythm, a steady pattern of light thumps. I timed my breathing with the rhythm. These sounds filled my head. I thought of nothing other than the next step and keeping my tempo. I soared over the sidewalks like concrete clouds. It’s first-person limited.

3、Suzie applied the lipstick to her lips. She had never done this before. She smacked her lips like she had seen other women do in the movies and looked in the mirror. She felt unsure about what she saw. She turned to her friend Donna and asked, "How do I look?" Donna gasped and said, "You look breathtaking, Suzie." Suzie smiled. She was grateful for these words, even though she didn't believe them. It’s third-person limited.

4、Jeremiah squinted from the sun. He was thinking about the game. They could have won. He could have won the game for them. All he needed to do was catch the ball, but he didn't. He dropped it. His coach talked to him. "Jeremiah, we had a great season. Nobody's perfect. Look at me. Ha ha," he said. Jeremiah smiled at the coach, but he couldn't forgive himself so easily. It’s third-person omniscient.

5、The bell rang. "Oh no! I'm going to be late for science! I've got to go," said Cassie to her friend Tom. Tom rolled his eyes and said, "Little Miss Perfect can't be late." This upset Cassie. She hated when people gave her a hard time for trying to do the right thing, especially Tom. "Quiet you," she said while swinging at Tom with her folder. He narrowly dodged the strike and said, "Be careful now. Attacking another student is a level two offense." Then he smiled a big, cheesy grin at her. It’s third-person limited.

6、Red looked across the prairie. He didn't see anything concerning. He wondered why Texas Joe had hollered like that. Texas Joe turned to him. The ghost that Texas Joe had just seen was gone. Texas Joe swatted at the air. Now he felt crazy. "You have to believe me, Red. It was just here," said Texas Joe. Red scowled at him in disbelief. "What was just here, Joe?" he asked. Red was angry with Texas Joe for disturbing his sleep for no apparent reason. It’s third-person limited.

7、April opened the escape hatch. She was afraid to jump, but she realized that the airship was sinking. She looked at Vince, who was strapping on his parachute. Vince locked eyes with her and then he realized the error in his conduct. "I'm sorry, April. That was ungentlemanly of me. Let me help you with yours." He proceeded to attach the other parachute to April's back. This made him feel a little better. It’s third-person omniscient.

8、The parade marched down the street. It was led by a caped drummer. He set a stately pace and tapped the accompanying rhythm. A marching band followed behind him, matching his pace. Behind the band were floats of all sizes and designs. Children and adults were riding on the floats, tossing out penny candies, streamers, and plastic prizes. The street was lined with people. The noises of revelry filled the streets. It’s third-person limited.

9、A bus drove by Kiko as she sat on the park bench. A woman pushed a double stroller with a set of twins down the sidewalk. Several pigeons approached Kiko. "Go away, flying rats. I do not have any food for you," Kiko shouted at the birds. They squawked and flew off. Kiko crossed her legs and took a deep breath. She picked up the newspaper, flipped through a few pages, and put it back down. Then her phone rang. It’s third-person limited.

10、"You already told me that story," said Shanice. She looked genuinely disappointed. I laughed awkwardly. "Sorry," I said, "I didn't mean to bore you with a rerun." I tried to laugh it off but she just wouldn't let it go. "Don't you even consider your listener before you tell a story?" she inquired acerbically. This caught me off guard. I replied, "I'm just trying to keep you entertained, Shanice." I pleaded. She smacked me down with another sharp comment, "Yeah, well, you should try harder." It’s first-person limited.

Unit 2 Meaning in Use

Part VI: After-class Quiz

1、The word “cultivate” has five senses which can be explained by its different synonyms, namely farm, develop, court, foster, and improve. The following are five sentences each of which contains a different sense of “cultivate”. Please analyze the meaning of cultivate in each sentence and fill in the brackets after each sentence with the corresponding synonym. Try to cultivate a positive mental attitude. ( )

2、She went out of her way to cultivate his friendship. ( )

3、She cultivated a small garden of her own. ( )

4、He only cultivates people who may be of use to him. ( )

5、My father encouraged me to cultivate my mind. ( )

6、The word “hideous” has two sense. A. If you say that someone or something is hideous, you mean that they are very ugly or unattractive. B. You can describe an event, experience, or action as hideous when you mean that it is very unpleasant, painful, or difficult to bear. Examine the following sentences and judge whether attached A or B in the brackets correctly explains the meaning of “hideous”. She saw a hideous face at the window and screamed. ( A )

7、His family was subjected to a hideous attack by the gang. ( B )

8、It’s been a perfectly hideous day. ( A )

9、The backs of my hands were indeed hideous and strange. ( B )

10、Wasn’t that a hideous thought to have? ( B )

Unit 3 Wording Strategy

Exercise on general words and specific words

1、Write as many specific words as possible for each of the following general words. eat: run: walk: pretty: flower: old:

Unit 4 Paraphrase: The Art of Interpretation

Please paraphrase the following sentences based on your interpretation.

1、Please paraphrase the following sentences based on your interpretation. (1) My complaint simply concerns the decay of the art of lying. No high-minded man, no man of right feeling, can contemplate the lumbering and slovenly lying of the present day without grieving to see a noble art so prostituted. (2) In the same way that species are adapted to fit certain habitats, languages evolve to suit the particular needs of their speakers. (3) Being Einstein, he was faster to the conclusions that shift forced on him than almost all of his contemporaries. (4) How easy it is to start off by defining women as caretakers of their surfaces, and then to disparage them (or find them adorable) for being “superficial”. (5) I was young and ill-educated and I had had to think out my problems in the utter silence that is imposed on every Englishman in the East.

Unit 5 Sentence Construction

Exercise of sentence construction

1、Please identify each sentence type involved in the following paragraph: (1)Suddenly the air was shattered by the screams of five male gorillas bulldozing down the foliage toward me. (2)Their screams were so deafening that I could not locate the source of the noise. (3)I knew only that the group was charging from the above; then the tall vegetation gave way as though an out-of-control tractor were headed directly for me. (4) Only on recognizing me did the group’s dominant silverback swiftly brake to a stop three feet away, causing a five-gorilla pileup. (5) I then sank to the ground submissively. (6) For a good half hour all five males screamed if I made even the slight move. (7) After a 30-minute period, the group allowed me to pretend to feed meekly on vegetation and then finally moved rigidly out of sight.

Unit 6 Text Development and Information Flow

Unit Test

1、Identify the Theme in the following sentence: All the critical remarks that have been made about his conduct amount to very little.
    A、all the critical remarks that have been made about his conduct
    C、all the critical remarks

2、Which part of the following sentence does the author most probably want to give textual prominence to? An intuition carries with it always the feeling of directness.
    A、the feeling of directness
    C、with it

3、Which of the following sentences has the most effectively established contrast by putting the contrasting information in an appropriate position?
    A、It would be better to make that kind of suggestion in a letter, not face to face.
    B、It would be better to make that kind of suggestion in a letter, not worse.
    C、It would be better to make in a letter that kind of suggestion, not face to face.
    D、It would be better to make that kind of suggestion in a letter, not any other kind.

4、In the little poem below, which element serves the purpose of shifting the perspective of narration? I put my hat upon my head And walked into the strand And there I met another man Whose hat was in his hand
    A、'there' in the third line
    B、'and' in the second line
    C、'and' in the third line
    D、'whose hat' in the fourth line

5、Are there identifiable Paragraph Theme and Paragraph New in the following paragraph? College as America once knew it—as an incubator of radical social change—is coming to an end. To our generation the word “radicalism” evokes images of al Qaeda, not the Weathermen. “Campus takeover” sounds more like Virginia Tech in 2007 than Columbia University in 1968. Such phrases are a dead language to us. They are vocabulary from another era that does not reflect the realities of today. However, the technological revolution, the moveon.org revolution, the revolution of the organization kid, is just as real and just as profound as the revolution of the 1960’s—it is just not as visible. It is a work in progress, but it is there. Perhaps when our parents finally stop pointing out the things that we are not, the stories that we do not write, they will see the threads of our narrative begin to come together; they will see that behind our pastiche, the post generation speaks in a language that does make sense. We are writing a revolution. We are just putting it in our own words.
    A、There are both Paragraph Theme and Paragraph New.
    B、There is neither Paragraph Theme nor Paragraph New.
    C、There is Paragraph Theme but no Paragraph New.
    D、There is Paragraph New but no Paragraph Theme.

6、The main function of Theme is to maintain a perspective in the development of a text.

7、An element in the New section of a sentence cannot serve as the Theme in the next sentence.

8、What appears before the Subject of a sentence always functions as the Pre-Subject Theme.

9、Some paragraphs may do without a Paragraph Theme, but there is always a Paragraph New to a paragraph.

10、Text Theme predicts what is to be addressed in the text, and Text New bring the text to an accumulation and consolidation.

Unit 7 Tones and Purposes

Identify Writers' Purposes and Tones

1、Cloning human beings should be banned.
    A、To persuade.
    B、To entertain.
    C、To inform.
    D、To amuse.

2、The best way to survive babysitting three toddlers is to come armed with plenty of energy, lots of patience, and a first-aid kit.
    A、To inform.
    B、To persuade.
    C、To entertain.
    D、To argue.

3、"Please note in your checkbook how much money you spent using your ATM card today". The tone of this statement is

4、"Hey, stop, you don't have to nag me. I was going to do it anyway!" The tone of this statement is

5、"When are you going to take the garbage out? Sometime this year, maybe?" The tone of this statement is

6、"I know it's been hard. And I appreciate all you are going through right now. If you will just put the receipts on the counter, I will take care of the paperwork for you. " The tone of this statement is

7、Tony's Place is crammed into a tiny building next to the Fine Arts Theater. The owners offer a menu of Italian food. They've got the checkered table clothes, dim lights, and crusty bread. They also know how to make a hearty red sauce. Too bad they use it to drown delicate fish. They also seem to lace everything with truckloads of garlic. The service needs some work, too. Our waiter didn't know what the specials were. Nor did he think to refill our water glasses before we asked. With a combination of fake-friendly chatter and outright nagging, he made us order, finish up, and clear out. He seemed to see us only as automatic tip machines. The food and low prices bring the customers in the door. The service should not push them out. The tone of the passage is
    C、plain and factual
    D、critical, or finds fault

8、Tony's Place is crammed into a tiny building next to the Fine Arts Theater. The owners offer a menu of Italian food. They've got the checkered table clothes, dim lights, and crusty bread. They also know how to make a hearty red sauce. Too bad they use it to drown delicate fish. They also seem to lace everything with truckloads of garlic. The service needs some work, too. Our waiter didn't know what the specials were. Nor did he think to refill our water glasses before we asked. With a combination of fake-friendly chatter and outright nagging, he made us order, finish up, and clear out. He seemed to see us only as automatic tip machines. The food and low prices bring the customers in the door. The service should not push them out. In above passage, the writer says, "He seemed to see us only as automatic tip machines.”The tone of this sentence is
    A、very serious

9、Tony's Place is crammed into a tiny building next to the Fine Arts Theater. The owners offer a menu of Italian food. They've got the checkered table clothes, dim lights, and crusty bread. They also know how to make a hearty red sauce. Too bad they use it to drown delicate fish. They also seem to lace everything with truckloads of garlic. The service needs some work, too. Our waiter didn't know what the specials were. Nor did he think to refill our water glasses before we asked. With a combination of fake-friendly chatter and outright nagging, he made us order, finish up, and clear out. He seemed to see us only as automatic tip machines. The food and low prices bring the customers in the door. The service should not push them out. In above passage, the writer's main purpose is to
    A、inform the reader
    B、caution and entertain the reader
    C、flatter the reader
    D、sell something to the reader

10、Tony's Place is crammed into a tiny building next to the Fine Arts Theater. The owners offer a menu of Italian food. They've got the checkered table clothes, dim lights, and crusty bread. They also know how to make a hearty red sauce. Too bad they use it to drown delicate fish. They also seem to lace everything with truckloads of garlic. The service needs some work, too. Our waiter didn't know what the specials were. Nor did he think to refill our water glasses before we asked. With a combination of fake-friendly chatter and outright nagging, he made us order, finish up, and clear out. He seemed to see us only as automatic tip machines. The food and low prices bring the customers in the door. The service should not push them out. In above passage, which sentence does the author use exaggeration to make a point about the food?
    A、The owners offer a menu of Italian food.
    B、They also know how to make a hearty red sauce.
    C、They also seem to lace everything with truckloads of garlic.
    D、The food and low prices bring the customers in the door.

Unit 8 Genre and Generic Structures

Create story and essay outlines

1、Outlining the generic structures for the story you are going to write.

2、Outlining the generic structure for the argumentative essay you are going to write.

Unit 9 Nominalisation and Style

Nominalisation and formality

1、Change the formality of the following two sentences to make the first one less formal and the second more formal without affecting their meaning. Negligent driving could lead to personal injuries or property damage to passengers or others. Because you always suppport us and greatly encourage us, we thank you very much.

Unit 10 Critical Eyes in Reading

Read the following passage and answer the following questions.

1、Direction: read the following passage and answer the following questions. Hobbies For several decades, psychologists have been doing extensive research on a subject that affects millions of people: hobbies. According to their findings, people’s choice of hobby can be as revealing as their reaction to an inkblot. Investigators have found that a clearly distinguishable pattern exists between hobby preferences and personality. Scientists now say that they are in a position to study a person’s hobby and produce a fairly accurate estimate of that person’s emotional maturity, level of intelligence, and distinguishing personality traits. This is because people generally pick a hobby of their own free will. As a parallel, a person choosing a life partner or mate employs a method of selection that reflects his or her intellectual and emotional maturity; the same process is at work in choosing a hobby. A hobby is never a task, but a form of living expression that augments one’s own personality. (Adapted from: Mahnke, M.K., & Duffy, C.B. (1996). The Heinemann TOEFL preparation course. UK: Heinemann English Language Teaching.) 1. What is the author’s argument? 2. What support (evidence) is offered on behalf of the argument? 3. Does the writer seem to you to be fair?



1、It is a misconception to assume that the two continents are similar. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

2、Mr. Cross will assume the role of Chief Executive with a team of four directors. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

3、In his dreams, the mountains assumed enormous importance. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

4、He contented himself by assuming an air of superiority. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

5、Prue assumed a placatory tone of voice. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

6、If there is no president, power will be assumed by the most extremist forces. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

7、If mistakes occurred, they were assumed to be the fault of the commander on the spot. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

8、After five minutes, Simon attended to what she was saying and assumed a look of astuteness. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

9、Once the bran has been removed by milling, the rice assumes a polished appearance and is generally white in colour. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

10、The issue assumes special significance when conviction for murder carries a mandatory penalty, particularly when the penalty is death. (synonym matching)
    A、take over

11、The Pre-Subject Theme of the sentence ‘and then she complained on her Facebook feed that we’d given her boring jobs’ is _____.
    C、and then
    D、then she

12、Which of the following units is the least likely to be a New element in the sentence ‘soon they will go to sleep in the tomb of the great king’?
    B、go to sleep
    C、in the tomb
    D、the great king

13、Which of the following is not a function that a Paragraph New can perform?
    A、It paraphrases the Paragraph Theme of the next paragraph.
    B、It consolidates what has been told in the paragraph.
    C、It evaluates the idea involved in the paragraph.
    D、It presents a new point that is to be picked up in the following phase of text.

14、Which of the following statements is true about a Text Theme?
    A、It predicts what is going to show up in the text.
    B、It makes clear the genre of the text.
    C、It assesses the content of the text in terms of value or importance.
    D、It shows the moral lesson readers can draw from the text.

15、The Theme of the sentence ‘And fine works of art are curated, preserved, and presented as valuable in themselves’ is _____.
    A、fine works of art
    C、fine works
    D、and fine works

16、Which of the following sentences involves nominalisation of action?
    A、Professor Agassiz guided him in a rigorous exercise of observation, analysis, and description of details.
    B、A table and twelve chairs are all that is needed to establish the jury’s room.
    C、For the past twenty-five years I have been teaching English literature in a university.
    D、Soft skills are impossible to quantify but are potentially far more valuable than exam results.

17、In the sentence ‘Alongside almost every creation myth about the origin of the Earth or the genesis of humankind, you’ll find another story about the diversity of language’, which word is a nominalisation of quality?

18、Which of the following statements is true in regard to the relationship between nominalisation and style?
    A、Formal style in English is in part attributed to the use of nominalised forms.
    B、Serious argumentative essays tend to contain less use of nominalisation.
    C、Texts that are made up of dialogues all through have no nominalisation in them.
    D、There is no discernible interrelation between nominalisation and formality.

19、Which of the following -tion words is not derived from the process of nominalisation?

20、Which of the following pairs constitutes a natural relationship between meaning and wording?
    A、logical relation – conjunction
    B、quality – preposition
    C、entity – adverb
    D、circumstance - verb

21、In general, the tone for a scientific work or a textbook is not likely to be:_____

22、In a scientific article introducing the application of 5G in our daily life, the author’s purpose is to:________

23、In a newspaper article condemning terrorist attacks, the tone of the writing is most likely to be:_______

24、The purpose of a comic book on Monkey King is most likely to:______

25、The tone of a book entitled “How One Should Read A Book” is not likely to be:____

26、Which of the following is not the reason why a thesis statement is an essential component of an argumentative essay?
    A、test your ideas by distilling them into a sentence or two
    B、better organize and develop your argument
    C、provide your reader with a “guide” to your argument
    D、hook readers with an interesting story

27、In a story, the part which presents the highest tension and conflict and signals the turning point of the story is known as:____
    B、rising action

28、The most applied and well-known story structure consists of three acts, namely the beginning, middle and end. This story structure can date back to:____
    A、the Republic by Plato
    B、the Poetics by Aristotle
    C、the Hamlet by Shakespeare
    D、the Six Arts by Confucius

29、According to SFL genre theory, there are three major micro-genres associated with the typological arguing genre. Which one is not mentioned?

30、Which one of the following statements is not true to Exposition type essays?
    A、introducing the Thesis at the beginning
    B、it is possible to have counter-arguments in the body part
    C、the focus of this writing is on the credibility of the Thesis
    D、the writing begins with an overview of the issue without an explicit statement of authorial stance

31、The scarecrow sagged on the pole. The corn reached for the heavens. A man dressed in gray was walking through the cornfield. The field rustled as he parted the spears. Soon he reached a breach in the field. A road cut across the landscape. The man in gray began walking down the road toward the sun. He walked to a farmhouse and knocked on the door. A man in a white shirt opened the door. "May I help you?" the white shirted man asked. The man in gray responded, "My name is Julius Cornwall. I've travelled from the future to deliver a message to you." (narrator’s perspective)
    A、first-person limited
    B、third-person omniscient
    C、third-person limited
    D、none of the above

32、Pete didn't feel like doing homework. He felt like playing baseball. He grabbed his mitt off the shelf and began to fantasize about being out in the field. His fantasy was interrupted shortly by the opening of his bedroom door. It was his mom. She started to yell, "Pete, you're not failing baseball class! You're failing math class! You need to study. Put the mitt away!" Pete put the mitt away, but he didn't know the first thing about studying math. (narrator’s perspective)
    A、first-person limited
    B、third-person omniscient
    C、third-person limited
    D、none of the above

33、Penny pedaled her bike as quickly as she could, but she couldn't seem to build up enough speed. She started rolling down the hill. "I can't do it," she thought to herself. Her friend Melissa was riding behind her. "Keep trying! Stand up on your pedals. You can do it!" Melissa shouted. Penny decided to take her advice. She stood up on the pedals and put all of her weight into the climb. She started going up the hill. This made Penny very happy. "Thanks Melissa!" she said as she got to the top of the hill. Melissa smiled and said, "What are friends for?" (narrator’s perspective)
    A、first-person limited
    B、third-person omniscient
    C、third-person limited
    D、none of the above

34、The sun was rising. Ivan saw the light piercing through the drawn curtains in his bedroom and knew that he would have to get up soon. He hadn't been sleeping for the last hour. He had been thinking about the future. He nudged his wife Nadia. Nadia came to slowly. She smiled, still thinking about the pleasant dream that she had been having, until she looked at Ivan's face. She could tell that something was wrong. (narrator’s perspective)
    A、first-person limited
    B、third-person omniscient
    C、third-person limited
    D、none of the above

35、The green ooze dripped slowly down the steps. We didn't have a Geiger counter with us, but if we had, I bet that it would have been beeping. I noticed Chris moving toward the ooze and said, "Chris, don't!" but it was too late. Chris dipped the front part of his shoe in the ooze and the ooze burned the sole off his shoe instantly. Then it melted his sock, and then it began to go to work on his foot. Vanessa began licking her lips. "I wonder what it tastes like," she said. I screamed, "No Vanessa! Don't!" (narrator’s perspective)
    A、first-person limited
    B、third-person omniscient
    C、third-person limited
    D、none of the above

36、What’s the hidden assumption of the claim “Cloning human beings is wrong because it is unnatural”?
    A、Cloning human being is unnatural.
    B、Human beings is natural.
    C、Whatever that is unnatural is wrong.
    D、Natural things are wrong.

37、What’s the hidden assumption of the claim “Moby Dick is a whale, so Moby Dick is a mammal”?
    A、A whale is a mammal.
    B、Moby Dick breathe like a mammal.
    C、Moby Dick lives in the see.
    D、None of the above.

38、What’s the hidden assumption of the claim “There is nothing wrong talking on a mobile phone during lectures because other students do it all the time”?
    A、Talking on a mobile phone is acceptable everywhere.
    B、Whatever other students do is correct.
    C、Talking after lectures are correct.
    D、Talking on a mobile phone during lectures is blamed.

39、What’s the hidden assumption of the claim “Killing an innocent person is wrong. Therefore, abortion is wrong”?
    A、Abortion is killing an innocent person.
    B、Killing an innocent person is felony.
    C、Abortion is illegal.
    D、A fetus is a person.

40、What’s the hidden assumption of the claim “Traces of ammonia have been found in Mars' atmosphere, so there must be life on Mars”?
    A、Wherever there is life, there must be traces of ammonia.
    B、Wherever there are traces of ammonia, there must be life.
    C、Life on Mars has been proven.
    D、Traces of ammonia is found on other planets, too.

41、( ) SHUTTER: CAMERA (same relationship)
    A、book: chapter
    B、buckle: belt
    C、cheese: cheddar
    D、flood: destruction

42、( ) WHALE: MAMMAL (same relationship)
    A、fish: goldfish
    B、beetle: insect
    C、butterfly: dragonfly
    D、tea: water

43、( ) PLUMBER: SCREWDRIVER (same relationship)
    A、surgeon: scalpel
    B、nurse: patient
    C、mayor: election
    D、ink: printer

44、( ) FOOTBALL: PITCH (same relationship)
    A、bow: sword
    B、gown: doctor
    C、blackboard: school
    D、calculator: accountant

45、( ) STORIES: NOVELIST (same relationship)
    A、genius: mathematics
    B、news: events
    C、architect: drawing
    D、strategy: coach

46、( ) HORSE: WHINNY (same relationship)
    A、bird: squirrel
    B、duck: toddle
    C、giraffe: crunch
    D、lion: roar

47、( ) COVID: MASK (same relationship)
    A、bacteria: diarrhea
    B、fungus: athlete’s foot
    C、plague: sanitation
    D、sick: vomit

48、( ) ROTTEN: PLANK (same relationship)
    A、smallness: country
    B、kindhearted: humanity
    C、naughty: child
    D、scorched: forest

49、( ) STALLION: MARE (same relationship)
    A、ox: cow
    B、duck: duckling
    C、shark: dolphin
    D、mutton: lame

50、( ) : CHUCKLE: GIGGLE (same relationship)
    A、withstand: withdraw
    B、ramble: stroll
    C、sneer: mock
    D、perpetual: eternal

51、A misconception of paraphrase is that it is the mere reproduction of an author’s thought.

52、The art of paraphrase is not a new topic in language teaching. Therefore, it has less value to the modern students.

53、When paraphrasing a figurative expression, we should turn it into another figurative expression.

54、When paraphrasing, students are required to follow rigidly the routinized steps.

55、An impressionistic method of paraphrase requires students to focus on developing a simple, literal, fluent and interesting paraphrase.

56、By consulting a good dictionary or a thesaurus, students would make the appropriate substitutions.

57、When paraphrasing, syntactic choices often take precedence over lexical or morphological choices.

58、According to some interesting experimental studies, multiple self-embeddings will make it almost impossible to understand a sentence even though that sentence might be grammatical.

59、The pragmatic or attitudinal meaning is usually hidden behind the surface of language, which makes it hard to detect.

60、By acquiring the skill of paraphrase, students can have many stylistic choices, more chances to understand difficult or obscure ideas and help them obtain fluency, copiousness and flexibility of language.

61、In an English statement, what comes before the Subject is not necessarily Pre-Subject Theme.

62、It is a rarely used method of text development to keep the Themes consistent and make the News varied across sentences.

63、A Pre-Subject Theme usually serves to signal a new phase in the development of a text.

64、Linkers are not treated as part of the Theme as they are logic markers rather than information indicators.

65、Paragraph New, if there is one, provides a summary of the paragraph and nothing more.

66、The relation between an action in meaning and a noun in wording is a natural one in English.

67、Not only can actions be expressed through nouns, but qualities, circumstances and logical relations can also be nominalised.

68、The use of nominalisation can condense the meaning but make the grammatical structure comparatively less complex.

69、Nominalisation appears in formal, written language; it cannot happen in colloquial, daily speech.

70、Creation of technical terms in English usually do not involve the process of nominalisation.

71、A speaker’s tone refers to those elements like speech intensity, pitch, speed and dictions.

72、A writer’s tone can change with different purposes of writing.

73、If the purpose of writing is to entertain, the tone should be solemn.

74、The attitude or emotion an author conveys in writing is suggestive of the tone of a speaker’s voice.

75、Sentence length and rhythmic flow does not suggest tones.

76、Genres are abstract, socially recognized ways of using language, and are identified in relation to a number of aspects, including categories, functions, structures and context.

77、In our life and readings, those text types like business letter, recipe, essay, email, and story all belong to the same genre though they fulfil different purposes.

78、In a linear/chronological narrative, the story ends where it began. Though the starting and ending points are the same, the characters have undergone a kind of transformation.

79、Gustav Freytag’s plot pyramid consists of the four parts as exposition, rising action, climax, and falling action.

80、An argumentative essay argues for a point of view and uses reasons to support it. This point of view is a thesis statement.

81、The omniscient narrator knows and perceives everything about the story but is not actually part of the story world.

82、In the first-person point of view, the narrator must be the main protagonist.

83、Multiple perspective can include either changing narrator or point of view to explain a single incident from multiple perspectives, or it can include using multiple narrators to provide fragments of the same story.

84、Third-person limited point of view allows for dramatic irony, because the reader can find out things that the main character does not.

85、In the first-person limited point of view, Narrator can be unreliable, because the narrator can misremember things, lie to the reader, omit details, misrepresent himself, spin events in different ways.

86、To be a critical reader, you need to evaluate the relevance, authority, reliability and currency of the reading material.

87、An Opinion is a perception about things and can be proven.

88、Considering the counterarguments won’t weaken the author’s argument, as long as the author can objectively and persuasively reason with the readers.

89、When examining what kind of evidence is presented to support the author’s argument, it is important to check the source of the information—theoretical, surveys, statistical data, literary sources, historical evidence, or a mix of sources etc..

90、How an author represent him or herself won’t affect a reader’s impression of a text.

91、The sentence—“My girlfriend stepped onto the bus and a pickpocket was seen approaching her.”—violates the From-old-to-new principle of sentence construction.

92、The sentence—“Beautiful she is; elegant she is; smart she is not.”—is a complex sentence.

93、Despite of its length, the sentence—“In our own day, despite the range of compositional reception practices, music is still used to signal plot and mood within the film and television industries, and there, catalogues of musical materials are still employed.”—is a simple sentence in essence.

94、To convert the sentences—“The Blue Angles perform spectacular stunts. They are part of the United States Navy. They perform stunts at air shows. Air shows are held around the world.”—into one sentence—“The Blue Angles of the United States Navy perform spectacular stunts at air shows around the world”, we combine them by coordinating.

95、The passage—“Alice Adams is a successful writer, and she lives in San Francisco, and she has received grants from the Guggenheim Foundation, and she has also received grants from the National Endowment for the Arts.”—reads dull because it lacks variety at sentence beginnings.

96、“I cannot say anything” reads more powerful than “Words escape me” because it is longer and uses catch-all words.

97、The sentence—“Our college is always the winner of the competition.”—does not reads so vivacious as “Our college always wins the competition” because the linking verb “be” is static while the verb “win” is dynamic.

98、The following sentences—“Glancing upwards she saw the pinnacle of the skyscraper in all its cruel power. It was almost completely dark. On the top floors a few windows here and there were still lit. And above the top the first glimmer of dawn was spreading.”—achieve coherence through the means of repetition.

99、The sentence—“But just as knowing how to scramble an egg or write an email makes life easier, so too will a grasp of computational thinking.”—avoids simple repetition through the use of two adverbs “so” and “too”.

100、The sentence—“A smile lightens the load, diffuses unpleasantness, redistributions nervous tension.”—achieves much rhetorical effect through the use of parallelism.