Chapter 1 Overview of The Development of Chinese and Western Landscape Architecture

1.1 To Enjoy Spring in Wonderful Gardens (I)——The idea and definition of landscape architecture随堂测验

1、Which one has the longest history of Chinese traditonal gardens in Suzhou gardens?
    A、Pavilion of Surging Waves
    B、Lion Grove
    C、The Humble Administrator's Garden
    D、Lingering Garden

2、Which one has the biggest area of Chinese traditional gardens in Suzhou gardens?
    A、Pavilion of Surging Waves
    B、Lion Grove
    C、The Humble Administrator's Garden
    D、Lingering Garden

1.2 To Enjoy Spring in Wonderful Gardens (II)——The basic elements of landscape architecture随堂测验

1、What are the main components of garden?
    A、Terrace
    B、Water system
    C、Plants
    D、Architecture

1.3 Field Trip and Trace for Thousand Years (I)——History of Chinese and Western landscape architecture (from 2700 BC up to now)随堂测验

1、Which ones is a part of the developement course of western gardens?
    A、Ancient gardening period
    B、Renaissance gardening period
    C、Classical gardening period
    D、English landscape gardens

2、Which one is a part of development course of Chinese traditional gardens?
    A、generation period
    B、transitional period
    C、prosperous days
    D、mature period

1.4 Field Trip and Trace for Thousand Years (II)——Comparison of artistic features of Chinese and western landscape architecture随堂测验

1、Which factors could influence the history of landscape architecture?
    A、Religion
    B、Philosophy
    C、Culture
    D、Location

Unit Test

1、Which one is not a basic component of Chinese traditional gardens?
    A、Terrace
    B、Water system
    C、Plants
    D、Painting

2、Which of the following is not the main stage of the developing history of western landscape architecture?
    A、Ancient gardening period
    B、Medieval gardening period
    C、Baroque style garden
    D、Renaissance gardening period

3、In Chinese traditional gardens, there is always landscape as “a pool with three islands”. What does this “three islands” symbolize?
    A、Penglai montain
    B、Wutai montain
    C、Yingzhou montain
    D、Fangzhang montain

4、Which of the following gardens are typical representatives of the ancient gardening period?
    A、Gardens in ancient Egypt
    B、Gardens in ancient Babylon
    C、Gardens in ancient Greek
    D、Gardens in ancient Roma

5、Which of the following stages belonged to developing course of Chines traditional gardens?
    A、Generation period
    B、Generation period
    C、Prosperous days
    D、Maturation period

Unit Homework

1、There are a lot of differences and similarities between Chinese and western gardens. Please analyze the differences and similarities of artistic characteristics of both Chinese and western gardens, according to literature study.

Chapter 2 The Art Characteristics of Ancient Gardening Period

2.1 Call of The Pharaohs From 7000 Years Ago——The development history and artistic characteristics of ancient Egyptian gardens (from 2700 BC to 1000 BC)随堂测验

1、Which of the following is the main element for ancient Egyptian gardens?
    A、Pylon
    B、Forest
    C、Hunting garden
    D、Hanging garden

2.2 Secrets of Hanging Gardens——The development process and artistic characteristics of ancient Babylon gardens (from 2700 BC to 1000 BC)随堂测验

1、Please determine which of the following is not the influence factors of ancient Babylonian garden features?
    A、Abundant forest resources
    B、Pursuit to eternal life
    C、Advances in irrigation technology
    D、Development of building technology

2.3 Splendor In The Classical Period——The development course and artistic characteristics of ancient Greek gardens (from 1400 BC to 500 AD)随堂测验

1、Please determine which of the following types of gardens belong to the public gardens in ancient Greek gardens?
    A、The Sacred Wood
    B、Baths
    C、Gardens for philosophers
    D、Arena

2.4 Greatness Buried for Thousand Years (I)——The development course and influence factors of ancient Roman gardens (from 1400BC to 500AD)随堂测验

1、What are the main types of ancient Roman gardens?
    A、Gardens planting fruits and vegetables
    B、Gardens in country estate
    C、Public gardens
    D、Urban residential gardens

2.5 Greatness Buried for Thousand Years (I)——The artistic characteristics of suburb villa gardens in ancient Roman (from 1400 BC to 500 AD)随堂测验

1、Please determine which of the following are the main elements of Roman country estate gardens?
    A、Sculpture
    B、Colonnade
    C、Cannel
    D、Dinning garden

2.6 Greatness Buried for Thousand Years (I)——The artistic characteristics of urban residential gardens in ancient Roman (from 1400 BC to 500 AD)随堂测验

1、Please determine which of the following were the main landscaping elements of the ancient Roman urban residential gardens?
    A、Sculpture
    B、Colonnade
    C、Fountain
    D、Wall painting

Unit Test

1、Which of the following types of gardens do not belong to ancient Egyptian gardens?
    A、Cemetery garden
    B、Scared temple
    C、Hunting garden
    D、Family garden

2、Which of the following were not the main elements of ancient Egyptian gardens?
    A、Pylons
    B、Forest
    C、Scaffolding
    D、Pavilion

3、Please determine which of the following factors is not the influence of ancient Babylonian garden features?
    A、Abundant forest resources
    B、Advances in irrigation technology
    C、Pursuit of eternal life
    D、Respect for trees

4、Which of the following types of gardens do not belong to the public gardens in ancient Greek gardens?
    A、The Sacred Wood
    B、Baths
    C、Gardens for philosophers
    D、Arena

5、Which of the following were the main elements of Roman villa gardens?
    A、Sculpture
    B、Dining garden
    C、Terrace garden
    D、Colonnade

6、Which of the following were the main elements of Roman residential gardens?
    A、Flower bed
    B、Colonnade
    C、Fountain
    D、Sculpture

Unit Homework

1、Although the overall layout of Hadrian villa is not uniform and orderly, but in the individual layout and garden elements, there is the characteristics of Renaissance Italian garden, such as terrace, fountains, sculpture, etc. These characteristics were inherited and developed by Renaissance gardens. Please analyze the influence of ancient Roman gardens on the characteristics of Renaissance gardens.

Chapter 3 The Art Characteristics of Medieval Gardening Period

3.1 Fireworks In The Dark Ages——Overview of western European gardens and features of Monastic gardens (5th to 14th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following elements are common plant landscapes in medieval gardens?
    A、Knot garden
    B、Maze garden
    C、Gardens for fruits and vegetable
    D、Herb garden

3.2 Widespread Islamic Culture (I)——The artistic features and influence factors of Persian Islamic gardens (5th to 14th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following is the influence of Persian Islamic gardens on Mughal gardens in India?
    A、Building located on the axis
    B、Cross quarries
    C、Gardens enclosed by buildings
    D、Shady trees

3.3 Widespread Islamic Culture (II)——The influence of Persian Islamic garden art of the characteristics of Indian Mughal gardens (5th to 14th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following is the main feature description of the Taj mahal in India?
    A、Building located on the axis
    B、Cross-quadrangle road
    C、Pool in the junction of a road and a canal
    D、Colorful plants

3.4 Widespread Islamic Culture (III)——The influence of Persian Islamic garden art on the characteristics of Spanish Moorish gardens (5th to 14th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following gardening elements belong to the Spanish Moorish garden in the middle ages?
    A、Crossed channel
    B、Knot garden
    C、Garden enclosed by a colonnade
    D、Color ceramic mosaics

Unit Test

1、Which of the following is "the middle ages" refer to?
    A、From the 14th to 16th Centuries
    B、From the 16th to 17th Centuries
    C、From 1400 B.C. to 500 A.D.
    D、From the 5th to 14th Centuries

2、Which of the following countries does the botanical landscape of an Islamic garden include colorful flowers?
    A、Indian Islamic garden
    B、Indian Islamic garden
    C、Persian Islamic garden
    D、Spanish Islamic garden

3、Which of the following is the main waterscape forms in medieval Islamic gardens?
    A、Channel
    B、Canal
    C、Shallow pool
    D、Still pool

4、Which of the following is the main types of medieval gardens?
    A、Islamic garden
    B、Monastery garden
    C、Castle garden
    D、Residential garden

5、What is the cross-shaped channel in Islamic gardens represents, as describe in the Koran?
    A、Water
    B、Honey
    C、Milk
    D、Liquor

6、Which of the following are common features of Persian Islamic gardens and Indian Islamic gardens?
    A、Courtyard surrounded by buildings
    B、Waterscape as channel
    C、Tall shady trees
    D、Buildings located on the axis

7、Which of the following gardening elements belong to the Moorish garden of medieval Spain?
    A、Colorful ceramic mosaics
    B、Knot garden
    C、Cross-shaped channel
    D、Courtyard closed by colonnade

Unit Homework

1、Please think about the influence of the characteristics of Persian Islamic gardens on Indian, Spanish, and even Italian Renaissance gardens.

Chapter 4 The Art Characteristics of Renaissance Gardening Period

4.1 Lucky Villa Life (I)——The development course and influence factors of Italian Renaissance gardens (14th to early 17th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Please choose the names of the “Three Greatest artists” in Renaissance?
    A、Dante
    B、Leonardo Da Vinci
    C、Rafael
    D、Michelangelo

4.2 Lucky Villa Life (II)——Artistic features in early stage of Italian Renaissance garden development (14th to early 16th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are the influence factors that promoted the art style of Italian Renaissance gardens?
    A、Mountains in Italy
    B、Renaissance
    C、Classical aesthetics
    D、Artists as Michelangelo

4.3 Unrestrained Fantasy (I)——Artistic features in the heyday of Italian Renaissance garden development (Mid-16th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following belong to the waterscape of Villa d’ Este using mechanical technology for soundscape?
    A、The Hundred Fountain
    B、The Dragon Fountain
    C、Water Organ
    D、Water Theatre

4.4 Unrestrained Fantasy (II)——Comparison of garden features in the heyday of Italian Renaissance gardens (Mid-16th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following garden in ancient Rome is the dinning garden in Villa Lante imitated from?
    A、Pompeii City
    B、Hadrian’s Villa
    C、Adonis roof garden
    D、Gardens for philosophers

4.5 Unrestrained Fantasy (III)——Artistic features of Italian Renaissance gardens by the end of development (Late 16th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are the main elements of Italian Renaissance gardens?
    A、Plants
    B、Waterscape
    C、Sculpture
    D、Stonework

4.6 Taste Under Strict Rules (I)——The history of spreading of Renaissance garden art to France (Mid-16th to early 17th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following may promote the spread of Renaissance garden art to France?
    A、Napoli expedition
    B、François I expedition
    C、Influence of Renaissance
    D、Yearning for Italian Renaissance gardens

4.7 Taste Under Strict Rules (II)——The influence of Renaissance garden art on the characteristics of French gardens (Mid-16th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are the main elements of French Renaissance gardens?
    A、Patterned flower bed
    B、Embroidered flower bed
    C、Channel
    D、Vegetable garden

Unit Test

1、Which of the following is the waterscape with sound effect using enclosing space in Villa d’ Este?
    A、The Dragon Fountain
    B、The Hundred Fountains
    C、Water Organ
    D、Water Theatre

2、Which of the following is not the main elements of Italian Renaissance gardens?
    A、Niche
    B、Plants
    C、Water system
    D、Sculpture

3、Which of the following were named as the “Top three Renaissance ideologist” ?
    A、DaVinci
    B、Petrarca
    C、Dante
    D、Boccaccio

4、Which of the following are stages in the developing of Italian gardens?
    A、Baroque gardens
    B、Humanistic gardens
    C、Mannerism gardens
    D、Rococo gardens

5、Which of the following are main characteristics in the early developing stage of Italian Renaissance gardens?
    A、hedge plants
    B、fountain in the road intersection
    C、small scale
    D、unobvious axis

Unit Homework

1、Compare the characteristics of the Villa d’Este and Villa Lante, which are both the representatives in the heyday of Italian Renaissance gardens?

2、Compare the characteristics of Renaissance gardens in the early, middle and late stages, from the aspects of garden layout and gardening elements.

3、Italian Renaissance gardens were popular in Europe in the 16th century, which had an impact on the art of gardening in European countries such as France, Britain and the Netherlands. Please discuss how the Renaissance garden affect gardens in other countries.

Chapter 5 The Art Characteristics of Classical Gardening Period

5.1 Foundation of Classicism Aesthetics——The development process and influence factors of French gardens (Mid-16th to early 18th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following landscape style ever emerged in the development course of French gardens?
    A、Renaissance gardens
    B、gardens with Le Notre’s style
    C、Classical gardens
    D、English landscape garden

5.2 Extravagant Flaunt of The Minister——Artistic features in the heyday of French landscape architecture (First half of 17th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following is not the main feature of French classical gardens?
    A、Embroidered flower beds
    B、The canal
    C、Fountains
    D、Patterned flower beds

5.3 King’s Vigorous Ambition——The development of French gardens and characteristics of classical gardens (16th to 17th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are the main elements of French classical gardens?
    A、Embroidered flower beds
    B、Patterned flower beds
    C、the water mirror
    D、Bosco

5.4 Ambition to Conquer Nature (I)——The spreading approaches and influence factors of Le Notre’s garden art to Spain (17th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following is belonged to the history of gardens in Spain?
    A、Moorish gardens
    B、Classical gardens
    C、Renaissance gardens
    D、Modern landscape architecture

5.5 Ambition to Conquer Nature (II)——The influence of Le Notre’s gardens art on the features of Spanish gardens随堂测验

1、Which of the following is not the main feature of Spanish classical gardens?
    A、Cross-shaped canal
    B、Lardge pool
    C、Flower beds with trees
    D、Fine fountains

5.6 Faithful imitators (I)——The spreading approaches and influence factors of Le Notre’s garden art to Germany (17th Century)随堂测验

1、Please determine which of the following are possible factors to promote the spread of French classical garden art to Germany?
    A、France is the neighbor of Germany
    B、Influence of French court culture
    C、Design by French gardeners
    D、The long-term war

5.7 Faithful imitators (II)——The influence of Le Notre’s garden art on the characteristics of German gardens (17th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are not the main elements of German classical gardens?
    A、Pool
    B、Canal
    C、Flower beds surrounded by channel
    D、Theatre with green shade

5.8 Belated Heyday of Landscape Gardening——The influence of Le Notre’s garden art on the characteristics of Dutch gardens (17th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are the main elements of Dutch classical gardens?
    A、The slender channel
    B、Embroidered flower beds
    C、Plant sculpture
    D、Fountains

5.9 Dignified Elegance of Tudor Dynasty——The influence of Le Notre’s garden art on English regular gardens (17th Century)随堂测验

1、Please determine which of the following are the elements of British regular gardens?
    A、Funny waterscape
    B、Plant sculpture
    C、Flower beds
    D、Boulevard

Unit Test

1、Which of the following is the inventor of the embroidered flower bed, as element of French classical garden?
    A、Claude Monet
    B、Louis XIV
    C、Andre Monet
    D、Andre Le Notre

2、Which of the following is the inventor of the grand canal, as the element of French classical garden?
    A、Andre Monet
    B、Claude Monet
    C、Nicolas Fouquet
    D、Andre Le Notre

3、There are two grand fountains on the axis of Versailles Palace garden, which are Latona and Apollo respectively. Which of the following correctly describes the design approach of that the two view points echo each other at a distance?
    A、Opposite scenery
    B、Borrowed scenery
    C、Enframed Scenery
    D、Leaking through scenery

4、There are large water mirrors in both Chateau Vaux le Vicomte and Versailles Palace, in which the shallow pools are used as a mirror to reflect the surrounding scenery, so as to connect the landscape and expand space. Please chose which of the following could describe this kind of design method?
    A、Opposite scenery
    B、Borrowed scenery
    C、Enframed Scenery
    D、Leaking through scenery

5、Which of the following have been experienced in the development of French gardens?
    A、The period of classical gardens
    B、The period of Moorish gardens
    C、The period of natural landscape gardens
    D、The period of Renaissance gardens

6、Which of the following could be used to describe the “great style” in French classical gardens?
    A、order
    B、rigor
    C、narrative
    D、regular

7、There are a lot of similarities of the master layout of classical gardens in Spain and France. But there are also some differences in the facade effects. Which of the following factors might cause those differences?
    A、Spanish traditional decorative style
    B、The influence of French dingers
    C、Climate conditions
    D、Geographical features

8、Which of the following countries’ garden art have influenced the German classical gardens?
    A、Italian gardens
    B、Dutch gardens
    C、French gardens
    D、English gardens

Unit Homework

1、The French landscape architecture has experienced many stages of development, including Renaissance, classicism and natural landscape gardening period. The Classical gardens represent the heyday of French garden art, but it was finally replaced by natural landscape architecture. Please consider the possible social, political, literary and artistic impact factors that might drive those changes.

2、Please take the chateau de Villandry and Chateau de Vaux le Vicomte in France as examples to analyze the similarities and differences between the characteristics of French Renaissance gardens and classical gardens from the aspects of site selection, layout, gardening elements and influencing factors.

3、Similar to the palace of Versailles in France, the Summer Palace in China is also a royal palace. But there are significant differences and similarities between the two gardens in the layout and other features. Please analyze the differences and similarities between the characteristics of the two royal gardens in France and China. What impact factors might cause this differences and similarities?

4、Please analyze how the French classical garden art spread to Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and other European countries?

Chapter 6 The Art Characteristics of English Landscape Gardens

6.1 Dramatic Changes In Landscape Architecture (I)——The development course and influence factors of English landscape gardens (18th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following is the developing stages of English landscape garden?
    A、Irregular gardening period
    B、Natural landscape garden
    C、Ranch-style gardens
    D、Painterly gardening period

6.2 Dramatic Changes In Landscape Architecture (I)——Artistic features of irregular natural landscape gardens in Britain (early 18th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following gardening techniques was used by designers in the Castle Howard?
    A、Natural changes under the geometric layout
    B、Line was changed into curve
    C、Broad composition and clean view of landscape
    D、To imitate the traditional Chinese gardens

6.3 Poets’ Sense and Painters’ Eyes——Artistic features of British natural landscape gardens (1830s to 1850s)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are main elements of English landscape garden in the UK?
    A、Ha-ha Wall
    B、Undulated terrain
    C、Winding river
    D、Scarce forest and grassland landscape

6.4 Pure and Romantic Pastoral Scenery——Artistic features of British pasture-style Landscape garden (1860s to 1880s)随堂测验

1、Which of the following is the respective designer for English landscape gardens in the stage of Ranch-style gardening periosd?
    A、John Vanbrugh
    B、William Kent
    C、L. Brown
    D、William Chambers

6.5 History Origins Between Chinese Tower In Kew Garden and The Porcelain Tower In Nanjing City (I)——The spreading history of Chinese garden art to the west (1880s to 1890s)随堂测验

1、Which of the following is not the main factor to promote the spread of Chinses garden culture to the west countries?
    A、John Neuhoff
    B、William Chambers
    C、Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairytales
    D、George III

6.6 History Origins Between Chinese Tower In Kew Garden and The Porcelain Tower In Nanjing City (II)——The influence of Chinese garden art on western landscape architecture (1880s to 1890s)随堂测验

1、Which of the following designers has effectively promoted the spread of Chinese garden culture to the west countries?
    A、Lancelot Brown
    B、William Chambers
    C、William Kent
    D、John Neuhoff

6.7 Romantic Country Melody (I)——The influence of English landscape garden art on the characteristics of French gardens (18th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are not the main elements of French landscape gardens?
    A、Tombs of celebrities
    B、The mill
    C、The ruins
    D、The blockhouse

6.8 Romantic Country Melody (I)——The influence of English landscape garden art on the characteristics of German gardens (18th Century)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are the main elements of German landscape gardens?
    A、The ruins
    B、The blockhouse
    C、Tombs of celebrities
    D、Chinese architecture

Unit Test

1、Which of the following designers is the representatives of English landscape gardens in the stage of ranch-style gardening period?
    A、W. Kent
    B、W. Chambers
    C、C. Bridgeman
    D、L. Brown

2、Which of the following elements eliminates the boundary between the gardens and the natural environment?
    A、Serpentine roads
    B、Avenue
    C、Ha-ha Wall
    D、Meandering river

3、In the English picturesque gardening period in 18th Century, which of the following designers played an important role in promoting the spread of Chinese garden culture in the western countries?
    A、L. Brown
    B、W. Kent
    C、J. Nieuhof
    D、W. Chambers

4、Which of the following elements might have influenced the appearance of landscape gardens?
    A、Rationalist philosophy
    B、Empirical philosophy
    C、Idea of enlightenment
    D、Landscape painting

5、Which of the following belong to the developing stages of English landscape gardens?
    A、Picturesque gardening period
    B、Irregular gardening period
    C、Natural gardening period
    D、Gardensque school of landscape

6、Which of the following designers took part in the design and construction of Stowe garden?
    A、W.Chambers
    B、L. Brown
    C、C. Bridgeman
    D、W. Kent

7、Which of the following architecture reflects the influence of Chinese culture on the Jardin anglo-chinois?
    A、The Palace of Trianon in Versailles, France
    B、The China tower in English garden in Munich
    C、The China tower at Kew garden in England
    D、The China pavilion in Sans souci, Potsdam

Unit Homework

1、William Kent's gardening technique has a deep influence on capability Brown. Please think about the difference between Brown and Kent's gardening techniques.

2、The development of English landscape gardens includes irregular gardens, natural gardens, ranch-style gardens, picturesque gardens and gardenesque school of gardens. Please compare the features of those different developing stages.

3、Compare the differences and similarities between the characteristics of Chinses traditional gardens and English landscape gardens.

4、Please try to analyze the differences and similarities between the characteristics of landscape gardens in England, France and Germany.

Chapter 7 The Art Characteristics of Gardens in other European Countries

7.1 Tolerance In Changing Dynasties (I)——The development course of Spanish landscape architecture (15th to 18th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are main gardening elements of Spanish Moorish gardens?
    A、Cross-shaped channel
    B、Carved arch on colonnade
    C、Color mosaic decoration
    D、Patterned flower bed

7.2 Tolerance In Changing Dynasties (I)——Spanish art nouveau movement and features of landscape architecture (19th to 20th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following is works of Antoni Gaudi as the representative of the Spanish art nouveau movement?
    A、Parc Güell
    B、CASA MILà
    C、Casa Batlló
    D、Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família

7.3 From Conformism To Tremendous Changes (I)——The development history of German landscape architecture (17th to 19th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following are not the main feature of the German Renaissance and classical gardens?
    A、Embroidered flower beds
    B、Chinese architectures
    C、The green theater
    D、Irrgarten

7.4 From Conformism To Tremendous Changes (I)——German modernism design and artistic characteristics of landscape architecture (19th to 20th Centuries)随堂测验

1、Which of the following representatives are viewed as the founders of modernist architecture design?
    A、Walter Gropius
    B、Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe
    C、Le Corbusier
    D、Frank Lloyd Wright

Unit Test

1、Which of the following does not belong to the features of plant landscape in Spanish gardens?
    A、Tall and shady trees
    B、Topairy
    C、Lotus
    D、Aromatic plants

2、Which of the following is garden designed by Antoni Gaudi as the representative of the Spanish art nouveau movement?
    A、Parc Güell
    B、CASA MILà
    C、Casa Batlló
    D、Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família

3、Which of the following belong to the three major European gardening styles?
    A、Landscape gardens
    B、Classical gardens
    C、Islamic gardens
    D、Renaissance gardens

4、Which of the following belong to the developing stages of Spanish gardens?
    A、Landscape gardens
    B、Moorish gardens
    C、Renaissance gardens
    D、Classical gardens

5、Which of the following national cultures has influenced the development of German gardens?
    A、British
    B、France
    C、Italy
    D、Netherlands

Unit Homework

1、The landscape art of Spain has experienced two heydays as Moorish gardens and classical gardens. After the 19th century, Spain was no longer a prominent empire, the construction of large gardens could not be realized, and the royal courts gradually opened to the public. With the rise of art Nouveau, the forms of Spanish gardens and urban public Spaces have changed a lot. After the second artistic peak, what changes have taken place in Spanish gardens?

2、From the classical gardens to the natural landscape gardens, then to the regular garden, then to the natural landscape garden, and then to the modernist garden, the German gardens has undergone several changes. Please consider why this change appeared in Germany. What are the influences on modern landscape architecture?

Chapter 8 The Emerge of Urban Park and The Development of urban Park Systems

8.1 Magnificent Transformation of Arenas and Baths as ‘Public Gardens’——The embryonic form of western urban parks随堂测验

1、Which of the following gardens are open to the public?
    A、Olympic Stadium in ancient Greek
    B、The Sacred Wood
    C、Philosophers’ Academy
    D、Training grounds

8.2 Emergence of Urban Public Parks——The development course of urban parks in Britain: Birkenhead Park随堂测验

1、Which of the following are called “pioneers of the urban landscape architecture”?
    A、Joseph Paxton
    B、Frederick L. Olmsted
    C、Adolphe Alphand
    D、Baron Haussmann

8.3 Development of Urban Public Parks——The development process of urban parks in France: Parc des Buttes-Chaumont随堂测验

1、Which of the following designers won the competition of Parc de la Villette in France?
    A、Rem Koolhaas
    B、Burle Marx
    C、Bernard Tschumi
    D、Dan Kelly

8.4 Succession and Friendship (I)——The landmark of modern American landscape architecture: The central park in New York随堂测验

1、Which of the following is called as “the father of modern American landscape architecture”?
    A、Andrew Downing
    B、Calvert Vaux
    C、Frederick Law Olmsted
    D、Charles Eliot

8.5 Succession and Friendship (II)——Formation and development of American metropolitan park systems: The emerald necklace随堂测验

1、Which of the following is called as “the father of metropolitan park systems in America”?
    A、Andrew J. Downing
    B、Frederick L. Olmsted
    C、Calvert Vaux
    D、Charles Eliot

Unit Test

1、Which of the following is considered the world’s first urban park?
    A、The Central park in New York
    B、Parc des Buttes-Chaumont
    C、The Birkenhead Park in Liverpool
    D、Prospect Park, USA

2、Which of the following projects has included urban parks into urban planning as infrastructures?
    A、Renovation and expansion planning of Paris
    B、Emerald Necklace in Boston
    C、Urban park movement
    D、Boston Metropolitan park system

3、Which of the following is the prototype of urban parks——a public garden or space?
    A、Baths in ancient Roman
    B、Training grounds in medieval age
    C、Olympic stadium in ancient Greek
    D、Tuileries Palace in Paris

4、Which of the following are the characteristics of Birkenhead Park in UK?
    A、Natural landscape garden
    B、Scarce forest and grassland landscape
    C、The winding river
    D、Traffic system which cars and people are divided

5、Which of the following elements belongs to the system of point-line-area in Parc de la Villette, Paris, France?
    A、Them gardens
    B、Folly
    C、Lawn for activities
    D、Elevated corridors

6、Which of the following is part of the Boston Emerald Necklace?
    A、Olmsted Park
    B、Arnold Arboretum
    C、Franklin Park
    D、Back Bay

Unit Homework

1、The construction of urban parks started in Britain, developed in France and became mature in the United States. It became a common practice in Europe and The United States, forming the urban park movement and even triggering the urban beautification movement. Prof. Yu once in Peking University ever pointed out that "under the urban beautification movement, the park construction emphasizes memorial, mechanism and sense of form. In fact, the real meaning of urban park is to provide urban residents with environment for leisure, living and working. It may be a big mistake to replace nature with artificial landscape totally." Is there an urban beautification movement in your country? Does it meet the requirements of ecological and sustainable development?

Chapter 9 Landscape Architects and Art Schools of Modern Landscape and Ecological Design

9.1 Awakening of Ecological Consciousness (I)——Evolution of theories and methods of ecological planning and design of western landscape architecture随堂测验

1、Which of the following was the first generation of modern landscape architects 1940s, and was the pioneer of American “California Garden Style”?
    A、Thomas Church
    B、Garrett Eckbo
    C、Dan Kiley
    D、James C. Rose

2、Which of the following is a practice of landscape architecture with minimalism art since the 1970s?
    A、Parc Andrè-Citroën
    B、Parc de la Villette
    C、National 911 Memorial
    D、Bagel Garden

9.2 Awakening of Ecological Consciousness (II)——Case studies on practices of ecological planning and design of western landscape architecture随堂测验

1、Which of the following disciplines has influenced the development of ecological planning?
    A、Geography
    B、Ecology
    C、Landscape Ecology
    D、Landscape Aesthetics

2、Which of the following design pioneers have promoted the development of ecological planning and design of landscape architecture?
    A、Philip Levies
    B、Lawrence Halprin
    C、Ian L. MacHag
    D、Frederick Steiner

3、Which of the following cases belong to the ecological design of landscape architecture?
    A、Landschaftspark Duisburg Nord
    B、The High Line Park in New York
    C、The Gasworks Park
    D、The Freshkills Park

Unit Test

1、Which of the following pioneers were committed to introducing ecological thought into landscape architecture planning and design?
    A、Patrick Geddes
    B、Garret Eckbo
    C、Warren Manning
    D、Chales Eliot

2、Which of the following belong to ecological planning theories?
    A、Map overlay method by Philip Levis
    B、Ecological factor analysis by Angus Hill
    C、Layer-cake Model by Ian McHarg
    D、Comprehensive planning method of Frederick Steiner

3、Which of the following characteristics belong to the practices of ecological planning and design?
    A、The localization
    B、Protection and restoration
    C、Cognitive and experience
    D、Autonomic succession

Unit Homework

1、The theories and practices of ecological planning and design have gone through several stages of development, and the theories and methods have been constantly improved, which has also guided the practices of ecological planning and design, and also influenced the ecological planning and design of various countries all over the world. Please think about the ecological planning and design practice cases in your country. What ecological planning and design methods are used in this cases?

Final Exam

Objective Test

1、Which of the following is not the basic element of Chinese classical gardens?
    A、Water
    B、Architecture
    C、Rockery
    D、Couplets

2、Please decide which of the following options is not the main gardening elements of Renaissance gardens in Italy?
    A、carpet flower bed
    B、Stone carving
    C、Abode of fairies and immortals
    D、Waterscape

3、Please decide which of the following options is not the main gardening elements of French classical gardens?
    A、The Grand Canal
    B、Carprt flower bed
    C、Springs pool
    D、Embroidery flower beds

4、Please decide which of the following options is not the main gardening element of the English landscape garden?
    A、Winding river
    B、Undulating terrain
    C、Snake-shape Road
    D、Topairy

5、Which of the following garden elements is not the main feature of German Le Notre's Style Gardens?
    A、Green shady Theatre
    B、Embroidery flower beds
    C、Chinese Architecture
    D、Irrgarten

6、Which is the first urban public park in the world built in Liverpool?
    A、Hyde Park
    B、Kew Gardens
    C、Regent Park
    D、Birkenhead Park

7、Please decide which of the following options is called “the father of the US metropolitan park system”?
    A、Andrew J. Downing
    B、Frederick L. Olmsted
    C、Charles Eliot
    D、Calvert Vaux

8、Chinese classical gardens often create the scenery of "one pool with three hills". Which of the following is not a symbol of "three hills"?
    A、Mountain Fang Zhang
    B、Mountain Peng Lai
    C、Mountain Ying Zhou
    D、Mountain Wu Tai

9、Please decide which of the following options does not belong to the public gardens in ancient Greek?
    A、Scared wood
    B、Bath
    C、Philosopher Academy
    D、Arena

10、Which of the following countries will plant aromatic plants in Islamic landscape plants?
    A、Islamic gardens in India
    B、Persian Islamic garden
    C、Spanish Islamic gardens
    D、Taj Mahal

11、Which of the following is the representative who brings French garden art of Le Notre style to the top level?
    A、André Mollet
    B、Nicolas Fouquet
    C、Claude Mollet
    D、André Le Nôtre

12、There are two large spring pools in the central axis of the Versailles Palace, France which are Latona and Apollo spring pools respectively. Please decide which of the following options correctly describe the design method of echoing each other at a distance?
    A、Enframed scenery
    B、Borrowed scenery
    C、Opposite scenery
    D、Changing and varied landscape

13、Please decide which of the following gardening elements eliminates the boundaries between gardens and natural environment?
    A、Ha-ha Wall
    B、Snake-shape road
    C、Winding river
    D、Avenue

14、Please decide which of the following options belongs to the landscape architecture design work of Anthony Gaudi, the representative of the Spanish new art movement?
    A、CASA MILà
    B、Parque Güell
    C、Sagrada Família
    D、Casa Batlló

15、Which of the following developing stages belong to the historical development of Chinese traditional gardens?
    A、The heyday
    B、Transition period
    C、Generation period
    D、Mature period

16、Please decide which of the following are the gardening elements of the country villa garden in ancient Rome?
    A、Colonnade
    B、Dinning garden
    C、Canal
    D、Sculpture

17、Please determine which of the following are the gardening elements of the residential gardens in ancient Rome?
    A、Sculpture
    B、Colonnade
    C、Fountain
    D、Mural painting

18、Which of the following forms of waterscape appeared in medieval Islamic gardens?
    A、Canal
    B、Ditch
    C、Shallow pool
    D、Still pool

19、Please determine which of the following options belong to the common characteristics of Persian and India Islamic gardens?
    A、Courtyards enclosed by buildings
    B、The waterscape forms of ditches
    C、Tall and shady trees
    D、Building is located on the axis

20、What are the possible influencing factors for the appearance of French classical gardens?
    A、Renaissance Movement
    B、Rationalism philosophy
    C、Enlightenment Movement
    D、Absolute monarchy system

21、Which of the following cases belong to French classical garden?
    A、Vaux-le-Vicomte
    B、Villa Villandry
    C、Villa Lante
    D、Versailles Palace

22、Which of the following garden cases belong to the English landscape gardens?
    A、Kew Garden
    B、Chatsworth House
    C、Blenheim Palace
    D、Stowe Garden

23、Which of the following options belongs to the artistic features of the Spanish Moore garden?
    A、Colorful ceramic Mosaic
    B、Gardens enclosed by colonnades
    C、Topiary
    D、Cross canal

24、In which of the following countries were urban parks created, developed and matured respectively?
    A、France
    B、US
    C、UK
    D、Italy

25、Please decide which of the following options are the rudiments of urban parks - public gardens or spaces?
    A、Tuileries Palace
    B、Roman thermae
    C、Medieval training ground
    D、Ancient Greek Arena

26、Please decide which representatives of the following options are called "pioneers of urban gardens"?
    A、Joseph Paxton
    B、Baron Haussmann
    C、Frederick L. Olmsted
    D、Adolphe Alphand

27、Please decide which of the following pioneers of planning and design are committed to introducing ecological idea into practices of landscape architecture planning and design?
    A、Garret Eckbo
    B、Warren Manning
    C、Charles Eliot
    D、Patrick Geddes

28、Please decide which of the following features belong to the characteristics of ecological planning and design?
    A、Cognitive experience
    B、Protection and recovery
    C、Independent succession
    D、Regional localism

Subjective Test

1、Take the Villa d'Este or Villa Lante as an example to analyze the development and artistic characteristics of Renaissance gardens in Italy.

2、Vaux-le-Vicomte represents the maturity of French classical garden art, and affects the garden art in other European countries such as Spain and Germany. What is the main feature of French classical gardens?

3、Please analyze the impact of Birkenhead park in England and New york Central park in US on the construction of modern urban green space all over the world.