Unit 1 Introduction to Economic Geography

Exam 1

1、Who first put forward the term “economic geography”?
    A、(Germany) Götz
    B、(Ancient China) Sima Qian
    C、(Russia) Lomonosov
    D、(Ancient Rome) Strabo

2、What is the earliest classic about economic geography in China?
    A、Book of History: Tribute of Yu
    B、Records of the Historian: Biographies of Merchants
    C、Book of Han: Geography
    D、Classics of Mountains and Seas

3、Which of the following is not a branch of economic geography?
    A、China’s Economic Geography
    B、Industrial Geography
    C、Urban Geography
    D、Introduction to Economic Geography

4、What are the fundamental features of economic geography?
    A、Class property
    B、Territoriality
    C、Scientificity
    D、Practicality

5、Which of the following statements is consistent with the development of economic geography before the 20th century?
    A、It was mainly recorded in historical accounts
    B、It didn't form systematic scientific theories
    C、It focused on observations and descriptions about phenomenons
    D、It formed a relatively complete theoretical system.

6、What are the key points of theoretical researches of economic geography?
    A、the geographical system of human-land relations centered on economic activity
    B、the relationship between the world and regions, and among regions in different levels in globalization
    C、the relationship between regional economic competitiveness and social equity
    D、enterprise’s external spatial effects and spatial process of internal activity

7、What hot issues does economic geography pay attention to?
    A、the improvement of regional competitiveness
    B、the citizens’ development
    C、the ecological environment
    D、the wealth gap

8、What are the main international schools of economic geography?
    A、Naturalist School
    B、Sociological School
    C、Relational School
    D、Applied School

9、The research object of geography is the relationship between human activities and geographical environment.

10、Since the 20th century, the research perspective of economic geography has experienced a process from micro view, to intermediate view and to macro view.

11、Natural resources and natural conditions are the decisive factors of industrial layout, development and evolution.

12、Besides internal and external forces, more and more attention is paid to the role of technical and institutional forces in the study of the geographical system of human-land relations.

13、The most basic unit of economic activity in economic geography is .

14、Economic Geography is a scientific discipline that studies ,processes, mechanisms and regulation of economic activities.

15、Economic geography is a marginal discipline among Geography, and Economics.

16、Three national strategies about China’s regional development in the new era are the Belt and Road Initiative, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Integration Initiative and .

Unit 2 Agricultural and Industrial Location Theories

Exam 2

1、What was the mainstream agricultural theory in Germany before the agricultural location theory?
    A、Rational Agricultural Theory
    B、Self-supporting Agriculture
    C、Theory of Comparative Advantage
    D、Theory of Absolute Advantage

2、Which work systematically proposed the theoretical model of agricultural location published in 1826?
    A、The Conditions of Economic Progress
    B、The Isolated State
    C、The Central Place of Southern Germany
    D、The Conflict of Progress and Security

3、In Thunen Circle, which layer has the highest degree of intensive land use?
    A、the layer for truck garden
    B、the layer for field grass
    C、the layer for crop rotation
    D、the layer for cattle raising

4、In Thunen Circle, which layer has the lowest degree of intensive land use?
    A、the layer for truck garden
    B、the layer for wood products
    C、the layer for crop rotation
    D、the layer for cattle raising

5、Which of the following statements is incorrect in the theoretical model of Thunen's agricultural location theory?
    A、Freight is the only variable that determines the profit.
    B、The result of profit plus freight is a constant.
    C、The result of the subtraction between the market price and the production cost of the same agricultural product is a constant.
    D、The core question is how to increase the product price or reduce the product cost to maximize the profit.

6、What factors determine the size of free agricultural circle in Thunen's agricultural location theory?
    A、the urban area
    B、the size of urban population
    C、natural environment
    D、crop type

7、What is the rule for concentric circles of land use centered on rural settlements discovered by Nwafor et al?
    A、rent maximization
    B、time saving
    C、transportation cost
    D、traffic condition

8、Where does the phenomenon of inverse Thunen Circle occur?
    A、urban areas in developed countries
    B、rural areas in developed countries
    C、rural areas in developing countries
    D、rural areas in China

9、What was the first comprehensive work on industrial location theory?
    A、Theory of the Location of Industries
    B、The Isolated State
    C、The Wealth of Nations
    D、Order of Economic Space

10、In Weber’s industrial location theory, which factor plays a decisive role?
    A、wage
    B、freight
    C、agglomeration
    D、raw material

11、When the raw material index is less than 1, what is the type of industrial optimal location?
    A、material orientation
    B、market orientation
    C、free orientation
    D、None of the above answers is correct

12、When the raw material index is more than 1, what is the type of industrial optimal location?
    A、material orientation
    B、market orientation
    C、free orientation
    D、None of the above answers is correct

13、In the following industrial bases, which belongs to the coastal industry location?
    A、Panzhihua Iron and Steel Industrial Base(Sichuan Province)
    B、Anshan Iron and Steel Industrial Base(Hebei Province)
    C、Baohsan Iron and Steel Industrial Base(Shanghai)
    D、Handan Iron and Steel Industry Base(Hebei Province)

14、What is the most significant factor affecting the industrial location of manufacturing?
    A、raw material
    B、consumption
    C、fuel
    D、A and C

15、What is the greatest contribution of Hoover’s industrial location theory?
    A、the analysis of freight structure
    B、the minimum cost rule
    C、the minimum labor cost rule
    D、the industrial agglomeration theory

16、What is the biggest characteristic of Losch’s location theory?
    A、the Profit Maximization Theory
    B、the Cost Minimization Theory
    C、the Market Maximization Theory
    D、the Agglomeration Orientation theory

17、Who first put forward the hexagonal law of locational spatial equilibrium?
    A、Thunen
    B、Weber
    C、Palander
    D、Losch

18、When was the study of behaviorist location theory very active?
    A、In the second half of the 19th century
    B、In the early 20th century
    C、In the 1960s and 1970s
    D、Since the end of the 20th century

19、According to the behaviorist location theory, which of the following statements is an internal location factor?
    A、freight
    B、labor cost
    C、individual decisions and preferences
    D、local tax

20、Which of the following statements is incorrect about Smith’s theory of spatial margin of profitability?
    A、Government subsidies will increase the possibility of location selection
    B、The location selection of enterprises will be affected by some non-economic factors
    C、Entrepreneurial ability affects the feasibility of enterprise’s location selection
    D、The spatial cost and revenue curves don’t reflect the basic form of industrial location model

21、Which of the following statements are correct in describing the land rent curve in Thunen’s agricultural location theory?
    A、Each kind of crop has a land rent curve
    B、The slope of the rent curve is determined by the freight rate
    C、Crops that are not easy to transport generally have larger slopes
    D、The land rent curve is the core of Thunen’s agricultural location theory

22、What is the significance of Thunen's agricultural location theory?
    A、Natural conditions aren't the absolute cause of spatial differentiation in agriculture
    B、Absolutely superior modes of agricultural production don't exist for all regions
    C、Thunen applied scientific abstraction in his research
    D、For the first time, Thunen systematically expounded the influence of spatial friction on human economic activities

23、Which of the following statements are correct about the factors that cause the change of the structure of Thunen Circle?
    A、The navigable river changes the concentric-circle pattern into a long and narrow distribution pattern along the river
    B、The falling of grain prices will expand the livestock sector
    C、Soil improvement will expand the cereal-grass farming circle
    D、The decline in yield per unit area will narrow the range of the valley farming circle toward the urban center

24、What are the general location factors affecting all industries in Weber’s industrial location theory?
    A、fuel cost
    B、labor cost
    C、freight
    D、land charge

25、What are the theoretical assumptions of Weber's industrial location theory?
    A、The geographical distribution of raw materials is known
    B、Products'target markets and market sizes are known
    C、Labor can't be transferred
    D、A Homogeneous plain

26、Which of the following statements about the labor coefficient are true?
    A、The large labor coefficient means that the possibility of keeping away from the least freight location is large
    B、The small labor coefficient indicates the strong orientation of the least location of freight
    C、The higher the labour coefficient is, the more industry tends to concentrate on areas where labor is cheap
    D、The higher the labor coefficient is, the more industrial distribution tends to be dispersed

27、Which of the following environmental factors will affect the labor cost orientation?
    A、population density
    B、freight rate
    C、technical level
    D、policy

28、Which of the following statements about pure agglomeration are true?
    A、technical agglomeration
    B、economic agglomeration
    C、industrial concentration due to freight orientation
    D、industrial concentration due to labor cost orientation

29、Which of the following industries have a raw material index more than 1?
    A、iron and steel industry
    B、cement industry
    C、beer-brewing industry
    D、petrochemical industry

30、Which of the following statements about Hoover's industrial location theory are correct?
    A、The average freight per unit distance isn’t proportional to the increase in distance
    B、The suitable transportation distance of road, railway and water transport increases in turn
    C、The suitable transportation distance of road, water transport and railway increases in turn
    D、The transportation mode with low operating cost and high line transportation cost is suitable for short-distance transportation

Unit 3 Commercial and Service Location Theories

Exam 3

1、Which German geographer founded the central place theory in 1933?
    A、Thunen
    B、Weber
    C、Christaller
    D、Losch

2、What is the shape of the spatial organization of the market area according to the central place theory?
    A、circle
    B、hexagon
    C、square
    D、oval

3、According to the central place theory, what principles should govern the classification and arrangement of the central place hierarchy?
    A、market principle
    B、transportation principle
    C、administration principle
    D、utility principle

4、According to the central place theory, which of the following statements conforms to the market principle under the central location sequence?
    A、K=3
    B、K=4
    C、K=6
    D、K=7

5、According to the central place theory, which of the following statements conforms to the administration principle under the central location sequence?
    A、K=3
    B、K=4
    C、K=6
    D、K=7

6、What method did the central place theory first introduce into geography?
    A、deductive method
    B、comparative method
    C、logical method
    D、empirical method

7、Which German scholar is honored as the father of theoretical geography?
    A、Losch
    B、Thunen
    C、Theil
    D、Christaller

8、Compared with other industrial location, what is the biggest feature of retail location?
    A、consumer orientation
    B、producer orientation
    C、cost orientation
    D、profit orientation

9、What is the general trend of gem shop location?
    A、dispersion greater than concentration
    B、concentration greater than dispersion
    C、no apparent laws
    D、high concentration

10、In 1963, taking Chicago as an example, what kind of urban retail space did Bailey put forward?
    A、a concentric-circle structure centered on the core; banded retail space;specialized space
    B、a concentric-circle structure
    C、specialized space
    D、banded retail space

11、About the structure of the city's central business district,what representative model did Horwood and Boyce put forward?
    A、a concentric-circle model
    B、a core and periphery model
    C、a point axis model
    D、a network model

12、Which American scholar proposed the influential retail gravitation model?
    A、Reilly
    B、Hoover
    C、Porter
    D、Prandfoot

13、If the spatial demand curve changes gently, what is the feature of retail location?
    A、spatial agglomeration
    B、spatial dispersion
    C、spatial randomness
    D、spatial certainty

14、What is the theoretical basis of retail location research?
    A、central pace theory
    B、industrial location theory
    C、market location theory
    D、behaviorist location theory

15、How are advanced goods and services affected by distance attenuation?
    A、large degree
    B、small degree
    C、no effect
    D、a little

16、Which of the following industries is not a service industry?
    A、software industry
    B、information transmission industry
    C、design industry
    D、automobile assembly

17、According to the retail gravitation law, which of the following statements is true when there's a low-level C city between cities A and B?
    A、If two cities have a great difference in size, the retail attraction to an area is inversely proportional to the distance ratio between two cities to the third power.
    B、The ratio of retail sales attracted by two cities to city C is directly proportional to the square of the distance ratio to city C.
    C、The ratio of retail sales attracted by two cities to city C is inversely proportional to the population of the two cities.
    D、There’s no necessary relationship among the three cities.

18、What factor in the population is proportional to the retail location?
    A、distribution density
    B、total quantity
    C、sex ratio
    D、age structure

19、According to the central place theory,What is the relationship between the high-level and low-level centers?
    A、The highest centers have central functions at all levels.
    B、The highest centers don’t have central functions of the lower centers.
    C、The high-level and low-level centers have nothing to do with each other.
    D、There are no obvious rules for the distribution of centers of the same level.

20、Which of the following statements about the central place is incorrect?
    A、The central place is the center of the surrounding area.
    B、The central place can be a city.
    C、The central place can be a town.
    D、The central place is a virtual space.

21、Which of the following statements about the limitations of the central place theory is correct?
    A、It only focuses on the upper limit analysis of goods supply range.
    B、K is fixed in a system.
    C、Economic Man Hypothesis
    D、It has fully considered the agglomeration economy.

22、What are the basic factors that influence retail location decision?
    A、consumer market
    B、accessibility to shopping sites
    C、peer competition
    D、land price

23、What are the following statements about the location features of a restaurant?
    A、close to competitors
    B、centralized layout
    C、dispersed layout
    D、stay away from competitors

24、Which of the following statements about inter-industry competition about location are true?
    A、Dispersion and concentration are both possible.
    B、Cooperation can come from competition.
    C、It is quite possible to form specialized business centers.
    D、Two of a trade can never agree.

25、Which of the following statements about the demand space curve are true?
    A、The spatial change of demand space curve can reflect the structure of retail location space in the city to some extent.
    B、The demand space curve changes gently, which reflects that retail location has a strong spatial agglomeration.
    C、If the demand space curve changes steeply, the retail location tends to disperse.
    D、Demand space curve is independent of retail location.

26、What are the main influencing factors of land price?
    A、traffic convenience
    B、spatial relevance
    C、satisfaction with the surrounding environment
    D、policy

27、Which of the following statements about the location features of different types of service industries are true?
    A、The business centers and offices performing the management function are located in the centers of cities.
    B、The subsidiaries and departmental centers of enterprises are located in the sub-centers of cities.
    C、The finance, insurance, real estate industry are located in the centers of cities.
    D、There's no regular distinction among different types of services.

28、In what aspects are the hierarchy of location selection of for-profit service enterprises reflected?
    A、Selecting a city among different cities.
    B、Selecting a specific area within a city.
    C、Selecting a specific place within an area.
    D、Under different scales, the influencing factors of location selection are different.

29、What are the factors that need to be analyzed when selecting a specific place?
    A、the conditions and development of traffic lines across the place
    B、the basic situation of adjacent enterprises
    C、the capacity of parking lots
    D、the overall cost for actual location in the specific place

30、Which of the following statements are true about the central place theory?
    A、Market principle is the foundation, and transportation principle and administrative principle are the supplement to the central system formed under market principles.
    B、Market principle applies to the analysis of low-order central layout.
    C、One important factor that determines the range of the supply of goods and services at all levels of central places is economic distance.
    D、The central place theory is the theoretical basis of Urban Geography and Commercial Geography.

Unit 4 Location of Multi-sector Enterprises

Exam 4

1、What are the main causes of economies of scale?
    A、The existence of variable costs
    B、The existence of fixed costs
    C、The existence of labor costs
    D、The existence of logistics costs

2、What growth strategies will companies generally adopt after they have grown to a certain stage?
    A、Horizontal integration
    B、Vertical integration
    C、Scale management
    D、Spin-offs

3、Which refers to the process of spatial expansion of social and economic activities from near to far?
    A、Contagious diffusion
    B、Relationship diffusion
    C、Hierarchical diffusion
    D、Channel expansion

4、Which theory refers to enterprises entering the largest market first, then the second largest market according to market size, and so on ?
    A、Contagious diffusion
    B、Hierarchical diffusion
    C、Channel expansion
    D、Relationship diffusion

5、What is the key assumption for the possibility of the market area expansion model?
    A、The difference of the urban population size
    B、Size of cities and towns
    C、Different business capabilities
    D、Employee quality

6、In the process of enterprises' spatial expansion,( )has the lowest risk.
    A、Building an off-site warehouse
    B、Building a regional sales office
    C、Appointing a sales agent
    D、Building an off-site factory

7、In the threshold of enterprise metamorphosis and spatial evolution model, crossing( )is the fastest
    A、Activity space
    B、Information space
    C、Decision space
    D、Operation space

8、According to Hakansson's global expansion model, where do new companies usually build their offices?
    A、The place where the founders live or work
    B、Cost-oriented location
    C、Profit-oriented location
    D、Market-oriented location

9、Which process plays a pioneering role in an enterprise’s expansion?
    A、Marketing
    B、Production
    C、R&D
    D、Consumption

10、Which organizational structure divides departments according to enterprises' customer type?
    A、Geographic organizational structure
    B、Functional organizational structure
    C、Product organizational structure
    D、Customer organizational structure

11、Which one is the correct description of the drivers of business growth?
    A、To achieve economies of scale
    B、To internalize transactions
    C、To take advantage of the technology
    D、To cope with market competition

12、What are the strategies for business growth ?
    A、Horizontal integration
    B、Vertical integration
    C、Diversity
    D、Intra-product specialization

13、The spatial growth of an enterprise generally goes through different stages. Which of the following are correct?
    A、Single product, single function, single factory stage
    B、Single product, multi-function, multi-factory stage
    C、Multi-product, multi-function, multi-factory stage
    D、Single product, single function, multi-factory stage

14、What are the most common rules followed by enterprise spatial expansion?
    A、Contagious diffusion
    B、Hierarchical diffusion
    C、Jump diffusion
    D、Channel expansion

15、Which of the following models describes the international spatial evolution mode of enterprises?
    A、Market area expansion model
    B、Taylor's enterprise metamorphosis and spatial evolution model
    C、Hakansson's global expansion model
    D、Dicken's global shift

16、Which of the following departments will be established by companies that adopt the functional organizational structure?
    A、Manufacturing Department
    B、Marketing Department
    C、Finance Department
    D、Human Resources Department

17、Which of the following departments will be established by auto companies that adopt the product organizational structure?
    A、Car Department
    B、Truck Department
    C、Agricultural Machinery Department
    D、Research and Development Department

18、Companies that adopt the geographical organizational structure will generally divide their departments according to ( ).
    A、Production facility location
    B、Customer location
    C、Product Type
    D、Function type

19、Which of the following descriptions of the spatial features of the company's organizational structure are correct?
    A、The spatial structure of the functional organizational structure is generally relatively concentrated
    B、The spatial structure of the product organizational structure is relatively dispersed
    C、The spatial structure of the geographical organizational structure is the most dispersed
    D、There are no rules.

20、Which of the following description is right regarding the process of enterprise spatial expansion?
    A、The spatial expansion brought by internal growth is often planned
    B、Internal growth generally leads to locating at nearby
    C、Corporate mergers often have a law of distance decay
    D、The process of enterprise spatial expansion is randomly distributed

Unit 5 Location of Multinational Corporation (MNCs)

Exam 5

1、Which American economist put forward the product cycle theory in 1966?
    A、Vernon
    B、Coase
    C、Dunning
    D、Rugman

2、Which famous British scholar on multinational corporations proposed the eclectic theory in 1977?
    A、Vernon
    B、Dunning
    C、Coase
    D、Lewis

3、What are the main stages in product cycle theory?
    A、new product stage, maturing product stage, standardized product stage
    B、maturing product stage, standardized product stage, new product stage
    C、trial product stage, new Product Stage, standardized product stage
    D、trial product Stage, maturing product stage, standardized product stage

4、Where is the actual location of the headquarter of a multinational corporation?
    A、major metropolitan area
    B、characteristic town
    C、capital
    D、large and medium-sized city

5、According to the eclectic theory, what are the advantages that enterprises have before their foreign direct investment?
    A、ownership advantages
    B、internalization advantages
    C、location advantages
    D、externalization advantages

6、Which of the following statements about the Uppsala model are true?
    A、The internationalization process of companies is generally as follows: accidental export, agency export, establishment of overseas sales offices, overseas direct manufacturing.
    B、The internationalization of enterprises is a gradual development process.
    C、The international expansion of enterprises is the process of gradually shortening the “psychological distance”.
    D、It was proposed according to the process of internationalization of Swedish enterprises.

7、What are the micro location choices of transnational investment?
    A、close to the economic center
    B、close to the border of Neighboring country
    C、area with close cultural and social ties
    D、No special requirements for location

8、What are the location requirements for the headquarters of a multinational corporation?
    A、convenient transportation
    B、convenience of timely information acquisition
    C、convenience of timely contact with key personnel
    D、good natural environment

9、Which of the following statements about the change in the headquarters location of a multinational corporation are true?
    A、Multinational corporations generally rarely relocate their headquarters from their home countries to other countries.
    B、Within a country, the relocation of corporate headquarters between cities is common.
    C、Within a city, corporate headquarters are often moved out of the city center.
    D、Almost no change.

10、What are the location requirements for the R&D institution of a multinational corporation?
    A、close to research institutions and trade organizations
    B、close to the supply area of abundant and high-quality labor force
    C、close to the users of the new product
    D、close to high-level universities

11、What are the location choices of the R&D institution of a multinational corporation?
    A、metropolitan area
    B、university research concentration area
    C、location of the corporation's headquarter
    D、home country

12、Which of the following statements about the location distribution of R&D institutions of different types of multinational corporations are true?
    A、Home market corporations rarely establish their R&D institutions overseas.
    B、While establishing R&D institutions in their home countries, host market corporations also establish high-level R&D institutions in overseas markets.
    C、World market corporations tend to establish international and relatively independent research laboratories at appropriate locations.
    D、Multinational corporations from developing countries often set up high-level R&D institutions in developed countries.

13、Which of the following statements about the location features of production units of multinational corporations are true?
    A、The production units are far more dispersed than the corporate headquarters and R&D institutions.
    B、The production units are far more centralized than the corporate headquarters and R&D institutions.
    C、Different production activities have different location requirements.
    D、Corporations with the same production activities also have different locations due to different production techniques and organizational patterns.

14、Which of the following statements about the specialized production of production units of multinational corporations are true?
    A、Enterprises with specialized production have multiple production locations(countries).
    B、Each of location focuses on the production of a product that serves regional or world markets.
    C、These specialized factories are generally large in scale.
    D、All of these statements are true.

15、Which of the following statements about the location features of transnational horizontal integrated production are true?
    A、Enterprises with this type of production carry out specialized production in different locations (countries).
    B、A country with production units is just for processing exports.
    C、The production unit only acts as an “international procurement station” for multinational corporations.
    D、This production activity mostly occurs in labor-intensive industries in developed countries (or newly industrialized countries).

16、Multinational investment in any region can be analyzed from three aspects: ( ), ( ) and ( ).
    A、production chain
    B、organizational chain
    C、ownership relation
    D、innovation chain

17、What are the features of the relationship between a multinational corporation and the place of investment?
    A、complementarity
    B、competitiveness
    C、variability
    D、identity

18、What are the main factors that affect the relationship between a multinational corporation and the place of investment?
    A、socio-political background
    B、structural status
    C、relative position
    D、ideology

19、Which of the following factors will affect the relationship between a multinational corporation and the place of investment?
    A、political and social stability in the place of investment
    B、cultural similarity
    C、industrial structure of the place of investment
    D、technical structure of the place of investment

20、Which of the following statements are true about the complementarity between multinational corporations and the places of investment?
    A、Multinational corporations and regions have their own strengths, and these strengths are needed by each other.
    B、Multinational corporations try to establish branches through investment, in order to obtain resources and markets in the places of investment.
    C、China's strategy of market for technology
    D、The place of investment hopes to gain the advantages of multinational corporation through multinational investment.

Midtem Examination

Mid-term Exam

1、What factors determine the size of free agricultural circle in Thunen's agricultural location theory?
    A、the urban area
    B、the size of urban population
    C、natural environment
    D、crop type

2、Where does the phenomenon of inverse Thunen Circle occur?
    A、urban areas in developed countries
    B、rural areas in developed countries
    C、rural areas in developing countries
    D、rural areas in China

3、In Weber’s industrial location theory, which factor plays a decisive role?
    A、wage
    B、freight
    C、agglomeration
    D、raw material

4、When the raw material index is less than 1, what is the type of industrial optimal location?
    A、material orientation
    B、market orientation
    C、free orientation
    D、None of the above answers is correct.

5、What is the greatest contribution of Hoover’s industrial location theory?
    A、the analysis of freight structure
    B、the minimum cost rule
    C、the minimum labor cost rule
    D、the industrial agglomeration theory

6、What is the biggest characteristic of Losch’s location theory?
    A、the profit maximization theory
    B、the cost minimization theory
    C、the market maximization theory
    D、the agglomeration orientation theory

7、When was the study of behaviorist location theory very active?
    A、in the second half of the 19th century
    B、in the early 20th century
    C、in the 1960s and 1970s
    D、since the end of the 20th century

8、Which of the following statements is incorrect about Smith’s theory of spatial margin of profitability?
    A、Government subsidies will increase the possibility of location selection.
    B、The location selection of enterprises will be affected by some non-economic factors.
    C、Entrepreneurial ability affects the feasibility of enterprise’s location selection.
    D、The spatial cost and revenue curves don’t reflect the basic form of industrial location model.

9、What is the shape of the spatial organization of the market area according to the central place theory?
    A、circle
    B、hexagon
    C、square
    D、oval

10、According to the central place theory, which of the following statements conforms to the market principle under the central location sequence?
    A、K=3
    B、K=4
    C、K=6
    D、K=7

11、What method did the central place theory first introduce into geography?
    A、deductive method
    B、comparative method
    C、logical method
    D、empirical method

12、Compared with other industrial location, what is the biggest feature of retail location?
    A、producer orientation
    B、cost orientation
    C、profit orientation
    D、consumer orientation

13、Which refers to the process of spatial expansion of social and economic activities from near to far?
    A、contagious diffusion
    B、hierarchical diffusion
    C、relationship diffusion
    D、channel expansion

14、What is the key assumption for the possibility of the market area expansion model?
    A、size of cities and towns
    B、the difference of the urban population size
    C、different business capabilities
    D、employee quality

15、Which process plays a pioneering role in an enterprise’s expansion?
    A、marketing
    B、production
    C、research and development
    D、consumption

16、In the threshold of enterprise metamorphosis and spatial evolution model,crossing ( ) is the fastest.
    A、information space
    B、decision space
    C、operation space
    D、activity space

17、Which organizational structure divides departments according to enterprises’ customer type?
    A、functional organizational structure
    B、product organizational structure
    C、geographic organizational structure
    D、customer organizational structure

18、Which American scholar proposed the influential retail gravitation model?
    A、Reilly
    B、Hoover
    C、Porter
    D、Prandfoot

19、About the structure of the city’s central business district,what representative model did Horwood and Boyce put forward?
    A、a core and periphery model
    B、a concentric-circle model
    C、a point axis model
    D、a network model

20、What is the theoretical basis of retail location research?
    A、market location theory
    B、industrial location theory
    C、central pace theory
    D、behaviorist location theory

21、What is the significance of Thunen’s agricultural location theory?
    A、Natural conditions aren’t the absolute cause of spatial differentiation in agriculture.
    B、Absolutely superior modes of agricultural production don’t exist for all regions.
    C、Thunen applied scientific abstraction in his research.
    D、For the first time, Thunen systematically expounded the influence of spatial friction on human economic activities.

22、Which of the following statements about the labor coefficient are true?
    A、The large labor coefficient means that the possibility of keeping away from the least freight location is large.
    B、The small labor coefficient indicates the strong orientation of the least location of freight.
    C、The higher the labor coefficient is, the more industrial distribution tends to be dispersed.
    D、The higher the labour coefficient is, the more industry tends to concentrate on areas where labor is cheap.

23、What are the basic factors that influence retail location decision?
    A、consumer market
    B、accessibility to shopping sites
    C、peer competition
    D、land price

24、What are the main influencing factors of land price?
    A、traffic convenience
    B、spatial relevance
    C、satisfaction with the surrounding environment
    D、policy

25、Which of the following departments will be established by companies that adopt the functional organizational structure?
    A、manufacturing department
    B、Marketing department
    C、finance department
    D、human Resources department

26、Which of the following descriptions of the spatial features of the company's organizational structure are correct?
    A、The spatial structure of the functional organizational structure is generally relatively concentrated.
    B、The spatial structure of the product organizational structure is relatively dispersed.
    C、The spatial structure of the geographical organizational structure is the most dispersed.
    D、There are no rules.

27、Which of the following description is right regarding the process of enterprise spatial expansion?
    A、The process of enterprise spatial expansion is randomly distributed.
    B、Corporate mergers often have a law of distance decay.
    C、Internal growth generally leads to locating at nearby.
    D、The spatial expansion brought by internal growth is often planned.

28、According to the eclectic theory, what are the advantages that enterprises have before their foreign direct investment?
    A、ownership advantages
    B、externalization advantages
    C、internalization advantages
    D、location advantages

29、What are the location choices of the R&D institution of a multinational corporation?
    A、metropolitan area
    B、university research concentration area
    C、location of the corporation’s headquarter
    D、home country

30、What are the features of the relationship between a multinational corporation and the place of investment?
    A、identity
    B、complementarity
    C、variability
    D、competitiveness

Unit 6 Structure and Organization of Region

Exam 6

1、When the industry of the backward country catches up with the advanced country, by what model does it develop alternately?
    A、export-domestic production-import
    B、import-domestic production-export
    C、import-domestic production
    D、export-domestic production

2、According to Hoffmann's theorem, which of the following formulas for Hoffmann’s coefficient H is true?
    A、H=the net output of capital-intensive industry/the net output of consumption goods industry
    B、H=the net income of consumption goods industry/the total expenditure of consumption goods industry
    C、H=the net income of capital-intensive industry/the total expenditure of capital-intensive industry
    D、H= the net output of consumption goods industry/ the net output of capital-intensive industry

3、Industrialization is reflected in the rising share of national income and employment in ( ).
    A、agriculture
    B、handicraft industry
    C、business
    D、industry

4、Industrialization is reflected in the rising share of national income and employment in ( ).
    A、agriculture
    B、handicraft industry
    C、business
    D、industry

5、( ) refers to the influence of the spatial location relationship among different regions or economic activities within a region on their connections.
    A、agglomeration mechanism
    B、diffusion mechanism
    C、spatial proximity effect
    D、location orientation

6、Which of the following statements about rural industrialization is not true?
    A、Rural industrialization is an important way to solve the problems in urban and rural areas and promote the urban-rural integration.
    B、rural industrialization is jointly promoted by various non-agricultral industries that developed in rural areas.
    C、Rural industrialization is not only a reform of rural development, but also an important part of national industrialization.
    D、Rural Industrialization is the process of the rise and development of rural industry and the process of promoting the economic and social progress of the entire rural area.

7、After 1978, China entered into the stage of dual economy. The first dual economy is nationwide; the second dual economy is within ( ).
    A、cities
    B、countries
    C、regions
    D、urban and rural areas

8、High industry correlation is one of the characteristics that the leading industry must have. The correlation degree of an industry can be judged by ( ).
    A、output rate coefficient
    B、inductive coefficient
    C、impact coefficient
    D、productivity coefficient

9、What are the effects of technological innovation on the upgrade of regional structure?
    A、replacing products and industries
    B、guiding and changing consumer demand
    C、initiating and promoting institutional innovation
    D、enhancing regional economic competitiveness

10、What are the functional elements of a regional innovation network?
    A、institutional innovation
    B、technological innovation
    C、management innovation
    D、service innovation

11、What are the effects of rural industrialization on the development of agricultural areas?
    A、It has changed the industrial structure of rural areas.
    B、It has promoted the marketization of the economy in rural areas.
    C、It has increased foreign exchanges in rural areas.
    D、It can cultivate new growth points for the economic development of rural areas.

12、In general, what features should a leading industry have?
    A、high coefficient of comparative advantage
    B、high industry correlation
    C、high demand and income elasticity
    D、high rate of productivity growth

13、Regional spatial structure connects relevant resources and elements scattered in geographical space through certain spatial organization forms, and can produce unique economic benefits, including ( ).
    A、agglomeration economies
    B、economies of scope
    C、economies of scale
    D、economy saving

14、What stages did Friedman divide the evolution of regional spatial structure into?
    A、the pre-industrial stage
    B、the industrialization stage
    C、the post-industrial stage
    D、the transition stage

15、What are the basic elements of regional spatial structure?
    A、points
    B、lines
    C、networks
    D、domain planes

16、What are the roles of cities in regional development?
    A、organizing and driving regional development
    B、Regional development isn’t influenced by cities.
    C、promoting regional economic and social evolution
    D、constructing regional spatial structure

17、Regional innovation network is a relatively stable relationship network that is formed by the innovation subjects gathered in a certain region through long-term ( ) communication and cooperation among them, and it can promote the development of innovation.
    A、multi-channel
    B、multi-mode
    C、multi-level
    D、/

18、The regional industrial structure reflects the connection between micro-economic geography and macro-economic geography.

19、Spatial proximity effect refers to the influence of the spatial location relationship among different regions or economic activities within a region on their connections.

20、According to Friedman’s Core-Periphery theory, the development of the core and the periphery is equal, and they influence each other and develop jointly.

21、The double dual structure stage can be subdivided into two stages, 1979-1988 and 1988-now.

22、With the emergence of modern high and new technology, the function of factors in economic growth has undergone a fundamental change, and technological innovation can fully make up for the deficiencies in terms of resources in the region.

23、According to Friedman’s theory of regional spatial structure evolution, the basic feature in the transition stage is the homogeneous disorder of regional space, in which there are several local centers, but there is no hierarchical structure differentiation among them.

24、The point-axis spatial structure can also be called point-axis system. It’s developed on the basis of network spatial structure.

25、According to Lu Dadao’s theory of regional spatial structure evolution,in the transition stage, the regional spatial structure is in a low “equilibrium” and relatively stable on the whole.

26、Location orientation is an important and underlying factor that affects the formation and development of regional spatial structure.

27、The location orientation, the internal connection and the pursuit of the agglomeration economy of economic activities are the three reasons for the formation of the agglomeration mechanism.

28、When the regional spatial structure becomes mature, the agglomeration mechanism and the diffusion mechanism come into play simultaneously. Generally, the agglomeration mechanism is stronger than the diffusion mechanism.

29、The mechanisms of agglomeration and diffusion are inertial, and their functions are unlimited.

30、The subject elements of regional innovation network include enterprises, universities, scientific research institutions, local governments and other organizations and their individuals.

Unit 7 Regional Economic Development

Exam 7

1、Which of the following statements is true about Perroux’s theory of growth poles in 1950?
    A、The effect of the city on the surrounding area and other cities is balanced but not simultaneous.
    B、The effect of the city on the surrounding area and other cities isn’t balanced orsimultaneous.
    C、The effect of the city on the surrounding area and other cities isn’t balanced but simultaneous.
    D、The effect of the city on the surrounding area and other cities is balanced and simultaneous.

2、What is the relationship between the multiplier principle and the acceleration principle?
    A、Both reflect investment decisions.
    B、The multiplier principle reflects the decision of national income, and the acceleration principle reflects the decision of investment.
    C、The multiplier principle explains how an economy prospers, and the acceleration principle explains how an economy declines.
    D、The change of national income under the effect of multiplier is larger than that under the joint effect of multiplier and acceleration.

3、American economists Hoover and Fisher pointed out that there’s a “standard stage sequence” of economic growth in any region. In ( ) stage, agricultural production mode began to change, gradually from extensive to intensive and specialized.
    A、self-sufficiency
    B、rural industry rise
    C、agricultural production structure transformation
    D、industrialization

4、According to Rostow’s theory of economic growth stage, in ( ) stage, steel, machinery, chemistry and other heavy and chemical industries will become the leading sectors to drive economic growth.
    A、traditional society
    B、economic take-off
    C、maturity
    D、high mass consumption

5、According to ( ), industrial agglomeration can produce external economies of scale and external economies of scope.
    A、transaction cost theory
    B、principle of agglomeration economy
    C、innovation theory
    D、industrial organization theory

6、What are the characteristics of the economic region?
    A、organizational homogeneity or group identity
    B、relative exclusivity in space
    C、openness to external contacts
    D、hierarchy in combinations

7、What are the characteristics of regional governance?
    A、Regional development needs to be promoted more effectively on the basis of addressing market mechanisms and purely superior-subordinate government management mechanisms.
    B、All stakeholders including governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses,and individuals should resolve regional development problems by consulting on the basis of equality.
    C、Regional governance should make up for the shortcomings of market exchange and top-down government regulation.
    D、A polycentric, decentralized, independent and balanced decision-making mechanism and dispute resolution mechanism should be established.

8、Economist Rostow thinks, after the long-term accumulation, economic growth will produce qualitative change at some point. What basic conditions are required for this qualitative change?
    A、The rate of productive investment increases.
    B、Leading industries held by the industrial sector develop rapidly.
    C、The political, social, and institutional structure is conducive to the expansion of modern industries.
    D、The demand for consumer durables and labor services has never been higher.

9、In terms of resource allocation, what are the influencing factors of regional economic growth?
    A、factor endowment
    B、resource allocation capability
    C、locational condition
    D、external environment

10、According to the circular accumulation view, the monetary wage level and its growth rate are equal in all regions of the country due to the same system. In developed regions, the growth rate of output and productivity increases because of agglomeration economies, thus reducing relative efficiency wages.

11、According to Nurkse, the relationship between various factors of social economy does not keep balance or tend to be balanced, but keeps cycling, and this cycling has accumulation effect.

12、Regional economic development refers to regional economic growth.

13、The “Fordism” mode of production is more flexible to meet the changing needs of the market.

14、The development of process-based division of labor is necessary for the generation of traditional industrial clusters.

15、Locational condition is one of the internal factors affecting regional economic growth, and regional economic growth is subject to locational condition to a large extent.

16、The spillover effect of growth pole means that the polarization effect generated by growth pole is greater than its diffusion effect, thus greatly promoting the development of growth pole.

17、The economic zone is an organization with its own boundary, and it’s relatively independent in the regional economy.

18、Resource endowment is the main factor affecting regional economic growth. The resources needed for regional economic growth can be divided into natural resources and .

19、The resource allocation capability mainly consists of the economic system, , the organizational level of enterprises and their industrial structure.

20、Growth poles exert organizational effects on regional economic activities through dominant effect, multiplier effect, and .

21、The circular accumulation causation theory was first put forward by the economist Myrdal, and the vicious circle of poverty theory put forward by the American economist can be regarded as the application of the theory.

22、There are three prerequisites for the formation of an industrial cluster: supply, demand and .

23、In Marshall’s industrial cluster, companies are dominant with no leading companies. Also its economy of scale is low.

Unit 8 Features and Influencing Factors of Globalization of Economic Activities

Exam 8

1、What does The Fourth World refer to ( )?
    A、Most Developed Countries
    B、Least Developed Countries
    C、Resource Exporting Countries
    D、Countries Against Globalization

2、What play a key role in the process of economic globalization? ( )
    A、Governments
    B、Multinational Corporations
    C、Transportation
    D、Communication Information

3、According to the trend of the development of the world economy, which one is not the characteristic of future economic globalization ( ) ?
    A、Scientific and technological developments further improve the conditions for economic cooperation among countries and are conducive to the development of globalization.
    B、International exchange of people and cultures will create a favorable climate of opinion for economic globalization.
    C、Profitability for all parties involved in international resource exchanges will overcome disputes over the allocation of resources among countries and give economic globalization an undulating character.
    D、The process of economic globalization will to some extent be facilitated by large differences in levels of productive development between countries.

4、What is the main contribution of multinational corporations to economic globalization?
    A、Accelerating the internationalization of production and
    B、Promoting technological progress and international technical exchanges
    C、Expanding international trade volume
    D、The above options are all correct

5、Since the end of the war, the economies of the vast number of developing countries and regions have developed tremendously, but the gap between different countries and regions has continued to widen, and the scale and level of economic development have diverged at different levels, mainly including( ) ?
    A、Newly industrialized countries and regions
    B、Petroleum exporting countries
    C、"BRICS"
    D、Agricultural and mineral raw materials exporting countries

6、What countries are included in the BRICS? ( )
    A、China
    B、Brazil
    C、Australia
    D、South Africa

7、What are the main manifestations of economic globalization ? ( )
    A、Liberalization of trade
    B、International production
    C、Globalization of capital
    D、Globalization of technology

8、What influence economic globalization most ( )?
    A、Technology development
    B、Development of multinational corporations
    C、Liberalization of trade
    D、Liberalization of investment

9、Economic globalization is conducive to enhancing the impartiality of global economic operation rules.

10、Economic globalization refers to the widespread international movement of goods, capital, services, technology and information. It is the increasing economic integration and interdependence of national, regional, and local economies across the world through an intensification of cross-border movement of goods, services, technologies and capital.

11、The essence of economic globalization is economic integration.

12、The possibility of world economic fluctuations under economic globalization has declined.

13、Economic globalization has provided favorable conditions for cooperation in solving economic and social development problems.

14、Developing countries are the largest beneficiaries of economic globalization.

15、A major feature of economic globalization is the convergence of development between regions and the narrowing of development gaps.

16、Economic globalization has promoted the further development of international division of labor and changed the economic landscape.

17、Non-governmental organizations have always played an important and active role in the development of globalization.

18、The post-war imbalance between developed and developing countries has increased, but the gap among developing countries has gradually narrowed.

Unit 9 Regional Responses to the Economic Globalization

Exam 9

1、According to ( ), regional international economic integration is mainly based on the mutual benefit of economies of scale, which is essentially a compromising behavior in the international economy.
    A、interdependence theory
    B、theory of big market
    C、agreed specialization theory
    D、Customs Union theory

2、The development of the international division of labor has gone through the embryonic stage, the formation stage, the development stage and the deepening stage. The period from the mid-19th century to World War II was ( ).
    A、the embryonic stage
    B、the formation stage
    C、the development stage
    D、the deepening stage

3、Intra-product specialization is a new form of international specialization under the background of globalization. It means that the links or processes of the production process of a specific product are spread out geographically on the global scale, and more and more countries participate in the production of different links or processes of the product, forming a global ( ) production system.
    A、dotted
    B、linear
    C、network
    D、planar

4、Intra-product specialization conforms to the requirement of transforming from comparative advantage to ( ).
    A、competitive advantage
    B、absolute advantage
    C、competitive disadvantage
    D、comparative disadvantage

5、Localization is a development strategy of multinational corporations to cater to the customs, religious beliefs and other cultural traditions of host countries, in order to gain the recognition of ( ) in the process of globalization.
    A、the international market
    B、the local market
    C、the local government
    D、the local corporations

6、Reasons for the rapid development of regional and international economic integration after WWII include ( ).
    A、the deepening of market-oriented reforms on a global scale
    B、the limitations of the WTO multilateral trading system
    C、all kinds of positive economical effects produced by the region integration
    D、seeking political rapprochement, reducing conflicts and stabilizing the region

7、The negative impacts of regional international economic integration include ( ).
    A、trade transfer
    B、trade barriers
    C、investment transfer
    D、technology diffusion effect

8、The internal impacts of regional international economic integration include ( ).
    A、promoting the trade development of member countries
    B、promoting the economic development of member countries
    C、improving the status of member countries and regions in international economic and trade
    D、The sovereignty of the member countries is correspondingly bound.

9、In the context of globalization, there are some new agents of economic activities in the new contexts for the study of inter-regional relations. These agents include ( ).
    A、multinational corporations
    B、regional economic integration organizations
    C、corporations
    D、NGOs

10、In the context of globalization, internal requirements for regional cooperation include ( ).
    A、requirements for completing the value creation process
    B、requirements for the realization of the company's global business strategies
    C、requirements for technological innovation cooperation among countries
    D、requirements for the integrated construction of economies of scale and market standards

11、The development conditions of intra-product specialization include ( ).
    A、production process separability
    B、the development of communication
    C、multinational companies
    D、the development of transportation technology

12、Which of the following statements are true about the intra-product specialization?
    A、Intra-product specialization is the embodiment of the development of process-based specialization.
    B、Intra-product specialization reflects the development requirement of economies of scale.
    C、Intra-product specialization is affected by imperfect competitive market structure.
    D、Intra-product specialization reflects the significance of transaction cost savings.

13、Regional economic differences refer to differences in ( ).
    A、economic output
    B、economic growth rate
    C、economic structure
    D、conditions for economic development

14、Types of regional international economic integration include ( ).
    A、special tariff zone
    B、free trade zone
    C、customs union
    D、economic union

15、What are the three pillars of the European Union?
    A、common political system
    B、economic and monetary union
    C、common foreign and security policies
    D、common judicial and police cooperation

16、Types of international division of labor include ( ).
    A、vertical international division of labor
    B、horizontal international division of labor
    C、hybrid international division of labor
    D、network international division of labor

17、Political reasons for the rapid development of regional and international economic integration after WWII include ( ).
    A、disseminating the subject's political values
    B、promoting domestic institutional reform
    C、the limitations of the WTO multilateral trading system
    D、seeking political protection at the regional level

18、Regionalization refers to the efforts of partial transfer of sovereignty and elimination of discriminatory trade policies between local regions. The degree of market integration and system integration is higher than that of globalization.

19、The forces of globalization thus have a homogenizing effect, with a dispersion effect on the evolution of regional economic differences.

20、Multinational corporations are "non-local".

21、According to the theory of federalist legalism, the transfer of state power should be carried out step by step in accordance with the needs.

22、The organizational structure of multinational corporations is characterized by diversity and localization.

23、Regional economic differences can be controlled to a limited extent.

24、The relative differences of regional economic development refer to the differences in economic development between regions measured by the rate of change of an indicator. It reflects the actual economic gap among regions.

25、The profit-seeking nature of factors makes the movement of them in the global space have a certain geographical orientation, and the phenomenon of concentration of economic activities in specific locations still exists, widening regional differences in the era of globalization.

26、Those who advocate political and economic separation generally emphasize the role of supranational organizations in the integration process, but they ignore the existence of supranational organizations.

27、According to the interdependence theory, Karl Wolfgone Deutsch of Yale University thinks interdependence can produce both positive and negative effects. Strong positive interdependence will lead to cooperation and even integration, while strong negative interdependence will cause conflicts and wars.

28、From the perspective of a member country, the large market effects help to eradicate the “small but complete” self-sufficient economy that exists in the country.

29、The basic features of the Customs Union include cancelling tariffs internally and formulating uniform tariffs externally, that is, internal freedom and external protection.

30、Regionalization refers to the efforts of partial transfer of sovereignty and elimination of discriminatory trade policies between local regions. The degree of market integration and system integration is lower than that of globalization.

31、Regionalization is a concrete manifestation of globalization under contemporary conditions and a specific stage towards globalization.Regionalization is bound to be conducive to the promotion of global economic integration.

32、Liberalization of internal trade is an internal condition of regional integration.

Unit 10 Industrial Analysis of Economic Globalization

Exam 10

1、What is associated with the evolution of the global industrial spatial pattern?
    A、Technological progress
    B、Trade and investment liberalization
    C、Industrial transfer
    D、All of the above

2、Which of the following is the correct description of the impact of the shift in IT industry on Chongqing?
    A、Promoting industrial upgrading
    B、Leading to a single industrial structure
    C、Increasing unemployment
    D、Promoting the development of mineral resources

3、Who was the founder of the structuralist methodology in the19th century?
    A、Paul R. Krugman
    B、Ferdinand de Saussure
    C、Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein
    D、Jean Piaget

4、Which of the following is not a basic humanist viewpoint?
    A、Autistic thinking
    B、Appeal to emotion
    C、Perception
    D、Repeatability

5、What are included in the overall characteristics of the development of modern service industry?
    A、The connotation is getting more and more abundant and the business mode is constantly innovating.
    B、The role of the government-owned service industry in social life continues to become weak.
    C、Management is increasingly international, networking and integrating.
    D、Foreign direct investment has become an important form of expanding the scope of services.

6、What are the main aspects in which the conditions for the development of modern services are being optimized?
    A、Diversification and specialization of production
    B、Increasing demand for education and training, cultural life
    C、Government focusing on supporting the development of cultural industries
    D、Social labor division and development of service industry

7、Which of the following are characteristics of the financial industry?
    A、Monopoly
    B、High Risk
    C、Benefit Dependence
    D、High Debt Operations

8、Global IT giants Hewlett-Packard and Acer laptop computer settled in Chongqing, more than 100 computer parts enterprises stationed in Chongqing, forming a A complete "whole + supporting" industrial cluster. What are the main advantages for Chongqing to attract IT industry transfer?
    A、Abundant labor
    B、Sufficient water
    C、Low land price
    D、Preferential policies

9、What are the factors that affect the overseas location of multinational banks?
    A、Profit opportunities
    B、Degree of economic integration
    C、The size of multinational banks
    D、Characteristics of the host country system

10、The tool to analyze the global industrial transfer or the spatial pattern of the global industry is_______.

11、The industry chains are divided into _______ and buyer-driven.

12、It is generally believed that the automotive and laptop industries are _______ value chain oriented.

13、The main function of the financial system is _______ .

14、The types of international financial centers are divided into ______ inside and outside ______ ,separated inside and outside and tax avoidance three types.

15、The combination of Positivism and Empiricism is called ________ .

16、Humanistic geography emerged in the late 1970s, and its representative is _______ . He published the book "Humanistic Geography" in the journal of the American Geographical Association.

17、The questions in the enterprise questionnaire are divided into:______ and closed questionnaire two types.

18、The questionnaire distribution and recollection processes are:_______ , modification, distribution and recollection.

19、The processes of project evaluation are :_________ , pre-feasibility study phase, social evaluation phase and post-evaluation phase.

Unit 11 Frontier Themes of Economic Geography

Exam 11

1、What are the main ideas of new economic geography?
    A、international specialization
    B、the self-organization evolution of urban hierarchy system
    C、central-peripheral pattern
    D、polarization-trickle-down effect

2、Which of the following statements represent the possible impacts of Krugman's economic geography research?
    A、The integration of different views will be further strengthened.
    B、More importance will be attached to economic geography.
    C、Prospective research achievements are expected to increase gradually.
    D、New schools of economic geography are expected to emerge.

3、What are the main contents of the cultural and institutional turns?
    A、emphasizing the close economic and cultural ties
    B、socio-cultural embeddedness of the economy
    C、main schools of thought on the institutional turn
    D、institution thickness and regional development

4、What aspects of economic geography have been affected by institutional and cultural turns?
    A、the way of thinking
    B、the research object
    C、conceptual connotation
    D、subject positioning

5、Krugman's trade model emphasizes the increasing returns to scale.

6、To some extent, it is a historical necessity for countries to develop specialization.

7、Falling transport costs discourage the concentration of production activities.

8、Institutional thickness depends on the number of various institutions in the place and the connections between them.

9、The core of the embeddedness of economic activity is regional economic network and social network.

10、At the end of the 1970s, the economic development mode of western developed countries changed from standardized production and mass consumption Fordism to flexible production and personalized consumption post-fordism.

11、All models and theoretical analyses of new economic geography are based on two basic assumptions: __________ and equilibrium principle.

12、The modeling strategy of new economic geography theory can be classified into four academic techniques:__________ , iceberg, dynamic evolution and computer.

13、One of the core content of the D-S model is to assume constant ___________ and marginal costs of production.

14、The connotation of institutional thickness is reflected in the following three aspects:________________, establishing organic linkages among institutions and a strong social awareness among various institutions.

15、Write three schools of economic geography in terms of institutional turns:_________ , new spatial industry theory and theory of learning region.

16、____________ refers to the degree to which economic activity is constrained by non-economic institutions.

Final Examination

ECNU《Economic Geography》Final examination

1、When the industry of the backward country catches up with the advanced country, by what model does it develop alternately?
    A、export-domestic production-import
    B、import-domestic production-export
    C、import-domestic production
    D、export-domestic production

2、Which of the following statements is true about Perroux's theory of growth poles in 1950?
    A、The effect of the city on the surrounding area and other cities is balanced but not simultaneous.
    B、The effect of the city on the surrounding area and other cities isn’t balanced or simultaneous.
    C、The effect of the city on the surrounding area and other cities isn’t balanced but simultaneous.
    D、The effect of the city on the surrounding area and other cities is balanced and simultaneous.

3、What play a key role in the process of economic globalization?
    A、governments
    B、multinational corporations
    C、transportation
    D、communication information

4、According to ( ), regional international economic integration is mainly based on the mutual benefit of economies of scale, which is essentially a compromising behavior in the international economy.
    A、interdependence theory
    B、theory of big market
    C、agreed specialization theory
    D、Customs Union theory

5、Intra-product specialization is a new form of international specialization under the background of globalization. It means that the links or processes of the production process of a specific product are spread out geographically on the global scale, and more and more countries participate in the production of different links or processes of the product, forming a global ( ) production system.
    A、dotted
    B、linear
    C、network
    D、planar

6、Localization is a development strategy of multinational corporations to cater to the customs, religious beliefs and other cultural traditions of host countries, in order to gain the recognition of ( ) in the process of globalization.
    A、the international market
    B、the local market
    C、the local government
    D、the local corporations

7、Who was the founder of the structuralist methodology in the19th century?
    A、Paul R. Krugman
    B、Ferdinand de Saussure
    C、Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein
    D、Jean Piaget

8、Which of the following is not a basic humanist viewpoint?
    A、autistic thinking
    B、appeal to emotion
    C、perception
    D、repeatability

9、What is associated with the evolution of the global industrial spatial pattern?
    A、technological progress
    B、trade and investment liberalization
    C、industrial transfer
    D、all of the above

10、Which of the following statements is not the main aspect of the new economic geography?
    A、international specialization
    B、the self-organization evolution of urban hierarchy system
    C、central-peripheral pattern
    D、polarization-trickle-down effect

11、High industry correlation is one of the characteristics that the leading industry must have. The correlation degree of an industry can be judged by ( ).
    A、output rate coefficient
    B、inductive coefficient
    C、impact coefficient
    D、productivity coefficient

12、What are the functional elements of a regional innovation network?
    A、institutional innovation
    B、technological innovation
    C、management innovation
    D、service innovation

13、Economist Rostow thinks, after the long-term accumulation, economic growth will produce qualitative change at some point. What basic conditions are required for this qualitative change?
    A、The rate of productive investment increases.
    B、Leading industries held by the industrial sector develop rapidly.
    C、The political, social, and institutional structure is conducive to the expansion of modern industries.
    D、The demand for consumer durables and labor services has never been higher.

14、The negative impacts of regional international economic integration include ( ).
    A、trade transfer
    B、trade barriers
    C、investment transfer
    D、income spillover effect

15、The development conditions of intra-product specialization include ( ).
    A、production process separability
    B、the development of communication
    C、multinational companies
    D、the development of transportation technology

16、What are included in the overall characteristics of the development of modern service industry?
    A、The connotation is getting more and more abundant and the business mode is constantly innovating.
    B、The role of the government-owned service industry in social life continues to become weak.
    C、Management is increasingly international, networking and integrating.
    D、Foreign direct investment has become an important form of expanding the scope of services.

17、What are the factors that affect the overseas location of multinational banks?
    A、profit opportunities
    B、degree of economic integration
    C、the size of multinational banks
    D、characteristics of the host country system

18、What are the main contents of the cultural and institutional turns?
    A、emphasizing the close economic and cultural ties
    B、socio-cultural embeddedness of the economy
    C、main schools of thought on the institutional turn
    D、institution thickness and regional development

19、Spatial proximity effect refers to the influence of the spatial location relationship among different regions or economic activities within a region on their connections.

20、The “Fordism” mode of production is more flexible to meet the changing needs of the market.

21、According to the circular accumulation view, the monetary wage level and its growth rate are equal in all regions of the country due to the same system. In developed regions, the growth rate of output and productivity increases because of agglomeration economies, thus reducing relative efficiency wages.

22、The spillover effect of growth pole means that the polarization effect generated by growth pole is greater than its diffusion effect, thus greatly promoting the development of growth pole.

23、A major feature of economic globalization is the convergence of development between regions and the narrowing of development gaps.

24、Regionalization refers to the efforts of partial transfer of sovereignty and elimination of discriminatory trade policies between local regions. The degree of market integration and system integration is higher than that of globalization.

25、Regionalization is a concrete manifestation of globalization under contemporary conditions and a specific stage towards globalization.Regionalization is bound to be conducive to the promotion of global economic integration.

26、The basic features of the Customs Union include cancelling tariffs internally and formulating uniform tariffs externally, that is, internal freedom and external protection.

27、At the end of the 1970s, the economic development mode of western developed countries changed from standardized production and mass consumption Fordism to flexible production and personalized consumption post-fordism.

28、Institutional thickness depends on the number of various institutions in the place and the connections between them.